Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University,
Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria
Considering non-uniform water distribution in the world, increasing population up to eight billions in the next couple of years, maximum utilization of current water resources gain more interest. Water management of limited resources in arid area by implementation of efficient wastewater treatment processes reduce the risk of water shortage in long-term drought period. Furthermore, new advances in reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membrane technology facilitate the wastewater reuse for irrigation or even replacement with portable water. On the other hand, introduction of thousands trace organic compounds, such as heavy metals, pharmaceutical, plasticized, pesticides, etc. into the environment could pollute huge underground and surface water reservoir. As wastewater is the main source of such contaminants, modification of conventional treatment technology is the main concern of environmental agencies worldwide. Application of advanced oxidation processes as a tertiary treatment process, and modified activated carbon after filtration in water treatment facility significantly reduce the negative effects of emerging contaminants on the human health. Industrial effluents are not only require huge amount of water resource, but also introduce numerous toxic chemical into the water. Environmental regulations put pressure on mining, manufacturing and food industries to limit or eliminate such contaminants on their effluent. Nonetheless, advancement in analytical chemistry and environmental microbiology considerably help to find toxic chemical even in lower concentration and study their short-term and long-term effect on ecology. Finally, leachate from industrial and municipal waste considered the most polluted with highest concentration of complex chemicals. Valorization of waste, especially biological waste, into bio-fertilizer, waste to energy practises, and recycling are among environmental friendly and economical techniques by reduction the cost of long-term monitoring of waste disposal site, better management of green-house gases, such as methane and carbon dioxide produced by biowaste, as well as increasing the added value of final products.