Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia,
Serdang, Selangor,, Malaysia
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Flavonoids intake are associated with a lower risk of aging, including osteoporotic fractures. The mechanisms mediating the eﬀects are not yet understood; among the candidates are modiﬁcations of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) diﬀerentiation. Over the past two decades, extensive research exploring the physiological and therapeutic signiﬁcance of PPARγ activation has been conducted. PPARγ is induced during the diﬀerentiation of preadipocytes and is expressed also in antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells and macrophages. An increase in marrow adipocytes is associated with osteoporosis and age-related osteopenia, where in humans up to 90% of the marrow cavity is occupied by adipocytes resulting in the appearance of fatty marrow by the third decade of life. Thus, there is a clinical correlation between the appearance of bone marrow fat and reduced bone forming capacity.
Furthermore, the reciprocal relationship between osteogenesis and adipogenesis, in combination with the increased adipogenesis during aging and osteoporosis, opens opportunities to decrease adipocyte diﬀerentiation, accompanied by an increase of osteoblast formation providing a therapeutic target to prevent further increases in adipocytes formation. Wingless type MMTV integration site family members (WNTs) are a family of secreted glycoproteins acting in autocrine and paracrine fashions to regulate adult tissue homeostasis.