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Steel and Direct Reduced Iron (sponge Iron) Industry
Submission Deadline: Jan. 10, 2015

This special issue currently is open for paper submission and guest editor application.

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College of Materials Engineering, University of Babylon, Hilla, Babylon, Iraq
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Manuscripts can be submitted until the expiry of the deadline. Submissions must be previously unpublished and may not be under consideration elsewhere.
Papers should be formatted according to the guidelines for authors (see: http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/guideforauthors?journalid=123). By submitting your manuscripts to the special issue, you are acknowledging that you accept the rules established for publication of manuscripts, including agreement to pay the Article Processing Charges for the manuscripts. Manuscripts should be submitted electronically through the online manuscript submission system at http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/login. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal and will be listed together on the special issue website.
Published Papers
1
Authors: Jaleel Kareem Ahmad
Pages: 1-6 Published Online: Nov. 3, 2014
Views 3529 Downloads 181
2
Authors: Jaleel Kareem Ahmad
Pages: 7-10 Published Online: Nov. 5, 2014
Views 3201 Downloads 221
3
Authors: Jaleel Kareem Ahmad
Pages: 11-14 Published Online: Nov. 5, 2014
Views 3066 Downloads 180
4
Authors: Jaleel Kareem Ahmed, Mohammed H. Al-maamori, Hajir Mohammed Ali
Pages: 15-20 Published Online: Nov. 22, 2014
Views 3698 Downloads 272
5
Authors: Jaleel Kareem Ahmed, Zuhair J. Abdul Amer, Maha Jasim Mohammed Al-Bahate
Pages: 21-29 Published Online: Nov. 22, 2014
Views 3870 Downloads 195
6
Authors: Auda Jabbar Braihi, Sihama Issa Salih, Fadhel Abbas Hashem
Pages: 30-36 Published Online: Dec. 27, 2014
Views 3452 Downloads 246
7
Authors: Jaleel Kareem Ahmed
Pages: 37-42 Published Online: Jan. 27, 2015
Views 2983 Downloads 85
8
Authors: Mohammed H. Al-Maamori, Ali Abdul-Amir Al-Zubaidi, Ahmed Abdulameer Subeh
Pages: 43-47 Published Online: Feb. 1, 2015
Views 3185 Downloads 199

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Special Issue

Introduction
The method by which the first iron workers in ancient time produced a sponge and incoherent mass by reduction the iron ore with the hot coals of their small bonfires has already been described. Because of its appearance, and with the passing of time, man came to call it sponge iron. This production contained metallic iron, ferrous oxide which had hot been reduced, slag and impurities and only traces of carbon. Later through beating and reheating successively, it lost a good part of the impurities and slag and turned into iron that was stronger and more useful for the making of weapons and utensils. In this way, sponge iron was the principal source of supply for iron and steel for many centuries, until, around the year 1300 A.D., a process was developed whose impact and importance to civilization are well known and which was called a Blast Furnace.

Today direct reduced iron (sponge iron) which produced by reduction of iron ore by reducing gases (hydrogen and carbon monoxide) can be used by electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmakers as a part of their metallic charge, along with normal mill returns and, if required, with certain amounts of non – selected cheap scrap. The many advantages associated with the use of sponge iron enable the EFA steelmaker to economically produce not only tight specifications steels, but also the tonnage plain carbon steels.

Direct Reduced Iron, with its sponge – like structure, is chemically active and easily oxidized. The author has developed an efficient process for the treatment of sponge iron, known as the Waxing Process, which makes the sponge iron resistant to both oxidation and corrosion and no heat generated which causes fire.

A severe test is carried on by transferring about 22 tons waxed sponge iron from Saudi Arabia to Baghdad (1300 Km) in open trucks and under slightly raining. The results showed that (1) no loss in metallization (2) no fines created (3) no heat generated.
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