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Numerical solutions of global quantum field based models of the dynamics of the transmissions of neurotransmitters (e.g. dopamines) between nerve cells dominantly elucidate the role of the quantization of biological information.
Chemical synapses are specialized sites that permit a neuron to communicate via neurotransmitters (chemical signals) with other neurons. Human adults possess in their central nervous system about 100 billions synapses. The major elements of a synaptic transmission are illustrated by the following figure.
Figure. Relevant elements of chemical synaptic transmissions. (Courtesy of Wikipedia).
The recent paper of the author Prof. Paul Levi is focused to synapses due to their essential functionality and importance in the brain. A synapse collects every information coming in from all other connected neurons, then it scale up or down the relevance of the information (e.g. by inhibition or excitation) and finally, it distributes this locally modified information to other joined neuron. Synapses play a dominant role in the formation of information (e.g. short-term, long-term memory).
The generation and handling of molecular information is strongly influenced by the processes of the following five phase of a transmission cycle: Synthesizing of transmitters, transport to the active zone, release into the cleft, transmission through the cleft, and finally reception.
Levi points out that all phases of a transmission cycle can be globally described by quantum biology. This is unusual and new, since the following dominant effects occur, which do not exist in the world of macroscopically molecules. All molecules are considered as particles of a quantized field of Bosons (integer spin), with discrete energies and momentums. Particularly, this means that all particles are considered as matter waves (field modes).
The time-dependent current flow of the concentrations of all neurotransmitters that impinge on the corresponding, sensible receivers creates by integration the local quantized information of one synapse. More formally, it is calculated by the corresponding entropy. However, the ability of many connected synapses to store information does not result from the local information of one synapse, but only by a branchy network of synapses. The global information solely originates sustainable if the integrated information traverses in cycles through the network of synapses, within tight time spans. Such traversals show different, observable quantum effects of the synaptic circuitry. However, the brain is not a quantum computer, because such neural networks inherently produce incoherent states due to molecular interactions, quantum fluctuations and noise. Such disturbing effects are absent in artificial quantum computers.
One goal strongly motivates the author to extensively consider particular processes in the brain through the glasses of quantum biology. This is the vision that in each cell of the brain and in the whole body there exist entangled states, which instantaneously “inform” all other cells, without time delay, about a particular event and without using electrical or chemical message passings.
Prof. Paul Levi, Director (full prof. em.). Institute for Parallel and Distributed Systems (IPVS), University Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany