The Psychophysiological Effects of the Chemical Terrorist Attacks – the Neurotoxic Agent: Sarin
American Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience
Volume 5, Issue 6-1, November 2017, Pages: 15-15
Received: Oct. 10, 2017; Accepted: Oct. 12, 2017; Published: Oct. 13, 2017
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Authors
Bogdan Mircea Petrescu, Psychiatry Clinic, Central Military Emergency University Hospital “Dr. Carol Davila”, Bucharest, Romania
Daniel Vasile, Psychiatry Clinic, Central Military Emergency University Hospital “Dr. Carol Davila”, Bucharest, Romania
Octavian Vasiliu, Psychiatry Clinic, Central Military Emergency University Hospital “Dr. Carol Davila”, Bucharest, Romania
Andrei Gabriel Mangalagiu, Psychiatry Clinic, Central Military Emergency University Hospital “Dr. Carol Davila”, Bucharest, Romania
Mihai Alin Bădic, Psychiatry Clinic, Central Military Emergency University Hospital “Dr. Carol Davila”, Bucharest, Romania
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Abstract
Sarin (GB, O-Isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate) is an organophosphate neurotoxic agent that inhibits irreversibly acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Next, the accumulation of acetylcholine (ACh) in the central nervous system (CNS) causes convulsions and, in high dosage, centrally mediated respiratory failure. The ACh accumulation at peripheral vegetative synapses level leads to peripheral signs of intoxication and overstimulation of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors, which is described as “cholinergic crisis” (diarrhea, perspiration, salivation, miosis, bronchospasm). The exposure to high dosage of Sarin may lead to tremor, convulsions and hypothermia. More seriously, the accumulation of ACh at neuromuscular junctions’ level may also cause paralysis and peripherally mediated respiratory failure that can lead to death by breathing arrest.
In addition to the main action on the cholinergic system, Sarin has other secondary effects. These involve activating some neurotransmitters including the gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA) and alteration of other cellular signaling systems, such as the ionic channels, cellular adhesion molecules and inflammation regulators. The Sarin exposure is associated with symptoms of late neurotoxicity induced by organophosphates and chronic neurotoxicity induced by organophosphates. Moreover, Sarin has been involved in the toxic and immunotoxic effects such as endocrine disorders induced by organophosphates.
The standard treatment for exposure to the Sarin neurotoxin is a post-exposure injection with atropine, an antagonist of muscarinic receptors, followed by oxime, an AChE reactivator, and diazepam.
Keywords
Neurotoxicity, Organophosphates, Sarin, Toxicity, Oxime, AChE, BChE, LD 50
To cite this article
Bogdan Mircea Petrescu, Daniel Vasile, Octavian Vasiliu, Andrei Gabriel Mangalagiu, Mihai Alin Bădic, The Psychophysiological Effects of the Chemical Terrorist Attacks – the Neurotoxic Agent: Sarin, American Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience. Special Issue: “In and out of Your Mind” Abstracts of 1st Eastern European Conference of Mental Health. Vol. 5, No. 6-1, 2017, pp. 15-15. doi: 10.11648/j.ajpn.s.2017050601.25
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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