Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome, a Sequalae of Multiple Administration of Antipsychotics: A Case Report
American Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience
Volume 7, Issue 4, December 2019, Pages: 83-87
Received: Sep. 21, 2019; Accepted: Oct. 9, 2019; Published: Nov. 5, 2019
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Nervana Abdelfattah Hafez Elbakary, Mental Health Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar
Mohamed Adil Shah Khoodoruth, Mental Health Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar
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Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a lethal adverse drug reaction (ADR) that is often attributed to the administration of dopamine blockers, antiemetic agents as well as anti-parkinsonism medication withdrawal. We describe a challenging case of NMS, with malignant catatonia as a differential diagnosis, who was difficult to respond to treatment. The patient developed severe complications following her exposure to rapid titration using high doses of olanzapine, which was abruptly converted to chlorpromazine due to lack of efficacy, in addition to administering multiple as needed (PRN) medications for agitation. Hyperthermia, muscle rigidity, dysautonomia, mental status changes, catatonia, and some laboratory derangement were reported in this case. It is possible that factors such as naïve patients, high doses of neuroleptics, a switch from one agent to another, rapid escalation, and the increased use of parenteral therapy for managing of agitation acted collectively or individually as risk factors for developing NMS. Health care professionals should be cautious about the cumulative dose of antipsychotics used per day, including PRN medications. The delay in recognizing the early symptoms of NMS could put patients at higher risk of mortality. Lastly, it is pivotal to exclude other infectious or autoimmune etiologies before treating as NMS case.
Malignant, Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR), Dopamine Blockers, Hyperthermia, Catatonia, Neuroleptics
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Nervana Abdelfattah Hafez Elbakary, Mohamed Adil Shah Khoodoruth, Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome, a Sequalae of Multiple Administration of Antipsychotics: A Case Report, American Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience. Vol. 7, No. 4, 2019, pp. 83-87. doi: 10.11648/j.ajpn.20190704.12
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