Experimental Histological Evidence of the Safety of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation as a Therapeutic Procedure
American Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience
Volume 6, Issue 3, September 2018, Pages: 78-85
Received: Jun. 28, 2018;
Accepted: Aug. 1, 2018;
Published: Sep. 13, 2018
Views 828 Downloads 57
Ogunnaike Philip Olubunmi, Department of Anatomy, Ben Carson Senior School of Medicine, Babcock University, Ilisan Remo, Nigeria
Olatunji Sunday Yinka, Department of Anatomy, Ben Carson Senior School of Medicine, Babcock University, Ilisan Remo, Nigeria; Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Faculty of Basic Medical Science, College of Health Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
Owolabi Joshua Oladele, Department of Anatomy, Ben Carson Senior School of Medicine, Babcock University, Ilisan Remo, Nigeria
Olanrewaju John Afees, Department of Anatomy, Ben Carson Senior School of Medicine, Babcock University, Ilisan Remo, Nigeria
Aminu Azeezat Jolade, Department of Anatomy, Ben Carson Senior School of Medicine, Babcock University, Ilisan Remo, Nigeria
Fabiyi Sunday Oluseyi, Department of Anatomy, Ben Carson Senior School of Medicine, Babcock University, Ilisan Remo, Nigeria
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a type of electrical modulation of the nervous system activity which involves the uses of low current to stimulate specified areas of the brain using electrodes to the scalp. This study was carried out to investigate if tDCS which is being used in the treatment of various disorders of the brain could have any possible side effects that might be worse than the treated disorder or any effects of tDCS on the cytoarchitecture of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. A total of 32 adult male Wistar rats were used and were placed into 5 groups (A-E). Rats in group A were divided into two groups A (SHAM) (tDCS for 30seconds) and A (N-SHAM). Rats in groups B, C, D and E were stimulated for 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes with 12Volt respectively for the duration of 14 days and the animals were euthanized on the last day of the experiment two hours post brain stimulation. The specimen were subjected to gross morphological analysis and basic demonstration of the DLPFC using H & E and special stains. There was no significant difference in the neuronal structure and the supporting cells of the brain across the groups A (SHAM), B (5MINS), C (10MINS), D (15MINS), E (20MINS) when compared with control group A (N-SHAM) which suggest that tDCS does not have any neurodegenerative effects and could be safe in its use as neuro-stimulator to enhance cognitive ability in healthy individuals.
Ogunnaike Philip Olubunmi,
Olatunji Sunday Yinka,
Owolabi Joshua Oladele,
Olanrewaju John Afees,
Aminu Azeezat Jolade,
Fabiyi Sunday Oluseyi,
Experimental Histological Evidence of the Safety of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation as a Therapeutic Procedure, American Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience.
Vol. 6, No. 3,
2018, pp. 78-85.
Brunoni Andre, Nitsche Micheal, Loo Colleen. Transcranial direct current stimulation in Neuropsychiatric Disorders: Clinical Principles and Management. Chapter 7: Neurocognitive effects of tDCS in the healthy brain. Springer International Publishing Switzerland. (2016) 103-110.
De Aguiar V. TDCS in post-stroke aphasia: the role of stimulation parameters, behavioral treatment and patient characteristics. Cortex; 63 (2015) 296-16.
Bennabi Djamila, Solene pedron, and Vincent Van Waes (2014). Transcranial direct current stimulation for memory enhancement: from clinical research to animal models. Front Syst Neuroscience. 8: (2014) 159.
Badre, D., and Wagner, A. D. (2004). Selection, integration, and conflict monitoring: Assessing the nature and generality of prefrontal cognitive control mechanisms. Neuron, 41, 473-487.
Kobayashi S. Reward Neurophysiology and Primate Cerebral cortex. Encyclopedia of Neuroscience (2009).
Pierrot-Deseillingny Ch, Muri RM, Nyffeler T, Milea D. The role of the human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in ocular motor behavior. Ann N Y Acad Sci; 1039: (2005) 239-51.
Jones EG. Viewpoint: the core and matrix of thalamic organization. Neuroscience 85 (1998): 331-45.
Goldman-Rakic, Patricia S. Architecture of the prefrontal cortex and the central executive. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 769 (1995) 71-83.
D Badre, AD Wagner Left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and the cognitive control of memory Neuropsychologia 45 (2007), 2883-2901.
Nitsche M. A, Cohen Leonardo G, Wassermann Eric M, Priori Alberto, Lang Nicolas, Antal Andrea, Paulus Walter, Hummel Friedhelm, Boggio Paulo S, Fregni Felipe, Pascual-Leone Alvaro. Transcranial direct current stimulation: state of the art. Brain Stimulation. 1 (2008). (3): 206-23.
Fregni F., Boggio PS, Nitsche M., Bermpohl F, Antal A, Feredoes E, et al. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation of prefrontal cortex enhances working memory. Experimental brain research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Exper Cerebral; 166 (2005) 23–0.
Mario Bogdanov, Christian C. Ruff and Lars Schwabe. Transcranial stimulation over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex increases the impact of past expenses on decision-making. Cerebral cortex, (2015) 1-9.
Lauren Naomi Spezia Adachi, Wolnei Caumo, Gabriela Laste, Liciane Fernande Medeiros, Joanna Ripoll Rozisky, Andressa De Souza, Felipe Fregni, Iraci L. S. Torres. Reversal of chronic stress-induced pain by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in an animal model. Brain Research. Vol. 1489: (2012) 17-26.
Nitsche M. A, Paulus W. Sustained excitability elevations by transcranial DC motor cortex stimulation in humans. Neurology; 57 (2001): 1899-901.
Tanefumi B, Masahiro K, Takao Y, Takamasa M, Akihiko K, Tetsuro S, et al. Electrical Stimulation of the Cerebral Cortex Exerts Antiapoptotic, Angiogenic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Ischemic Stroke Rats Through Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase/Akt Signaling Pathway. Am Heart Associ; 10 (2009) 563-98.
Takano Y, Yokawac T, Masudac A, Niimic J, Tanakad S, Hironakaa. A rat model for measuring the effectiveness of transcranial direct current stimulation using fMRI, Neuroscience Letter 491: (2011) 40-43.
Monai H, Ohkura M, Tanaka M, Yuki O, Konno A, Hirai H, et al. Calcium imaging reveals glial involvement in transcranial direct current stimulation-induced plasticity in mouse brain. Natur Comm 2016; 7: 1-10. Moreraft RJ, Yterin EH, Ramchandaran VS (2002). PFC: prefrontal cortex. Encyclopedia of human brain, USA: Academic Press; (2002) 11-26.
Kluver H., Barrera E. "A method for the combined staining of cells and fibers in the Nervous system". J. Neuropath. Exp. Neurol. 12 (1953) 400–403.
Erickson-Davis CR, Faust PL, Vonsattel JP, Gupta S, Honig LS, Louis ED. ""Hairy baskets" associated with degenerative Purkinje cell changes in essential tremor" J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 69 (2010): 262–71.
Maria Vittoria Podda1,*, Sara Cocco1,*, Alessia Mastrodonato1, Salvatore Fusco1, Lucia Leone1, Saviana Antonella Barbati1, Claudia Colussi 1, 2, Cristian Ripoli1 & Claudio Grassi1, 3 Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation boosts synaptic plasticity and memory in mice via epigenetic regulation of Bdnf expression.
Paradiso, Michael A.; Bear, Mark F.; Connors, Barry W. Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain. Hagerstwon, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins (2007) p. 718. ISBN 0-7817-6003-8.
Bliss TV, Collingridge GL. "A synaptic model of memory: long-term potentiation in the hippocampus". Nature. 361 (1993): 31–39.
Ho Jeong Kim and Soo Jeong Han. Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Provokes Neuroplasticity in Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats. Hindawi Neural Plasticity. Article ID 1372946, (2017).