Psychoactive Substance Use Among Nigerian Students; Patterns and Sociodemographic Correlates
American Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience
Volume 5, Issue 2, March 2017, Pages: 22-25
Received: Apr. 12, 2017;
Accepted: Apr. 18, 2017;
Published: Apr. 24, 2017
Views 2426 Downloads 208
Chukwujekwu Chidozie Donald, Department of Neuropsychiatry, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
The increase in use and misuse of psychoactive substances is a global challenge of grave public health concern. This study aims to ascertain the patterns and socio-demographic correlates of psychoactive substances among undergraduates in a Nigerian University. Two hundred and ninety three subjects participated in the study. Questionnaires on risk factors and variation of psychoactive substances abused as well as on socio-demographic variables were administered to each participant. The prevalence of psychoactive substance use was 65.5%. the odds for use of the drugs was highest with alcohol 178(60.8%) and least for inhalational solvents 75(25.6%).There was significant association between gender and the use of: Cannabis X2 = 7.846, df=1, p<0.05, Cocaine X2 = 36.602, df=1, p<0.05,Other opioids X2 = 29.847, df=1, p<0.05, Sleeping pills X2 = 9.862, df=2, p<0.05. Nicotine X2 = 17.264, df=1, p<0.05, Inhalational solvents X2 = 6.598, df=1, p<0.05. Similarly, there was significant association between academic class and:- Cannabis X2 = 14.916, df=5, p<0.05, Heroine X2 = 12.272, df=5, p<0.05,Codeine X2 = 9.577, df=1, p<0.05, Other Opioids X2 = 15.962, df=5, p<0.05, Nicotine X2 = 15.496, df=5, p<0.05, Caffeine X2 = 13.428, df=5, p<0.05, Inhalational solvents X2 = 21.505, df=5, p<0.05. Also there was significant association between family history of use of psychoactive substances and use of Opioids X2 = 8.157, df=1, p<0.05The propensity of use of psychoactive substance has become a global emergency that requires desperate measures to curtail. This study is an effort to further emphasize this urgency.
Chukwujekwu Chidozie Donald,
Psychoactive Substance Use Among Nigerian Students; Patterns and Sociodemographic Correlates, American Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience.
Vol. 5, No. 2,
2017, pp. 22-25.
Odejide AO; “Status of Drug Use/Abuse in Africa a Review”. International Journal, Mental Health and Addiction 2006; 4(2): 87-102
Chukwujekwu DC, Stanley HO, Chu JC, Frank-Briggs A. The Prevalence of Drug Abuse among Secondary School Students in Eleme, A Sub-Urban Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. Journal of child language and communication disorders in Nigeria 2008; 1(2): 32-42.
Kaplan HI Sadock BJ. Substance Related Disorders. In synopsis of Psychiatry. 8th Edn.,Williams and Wilkins (New York) 2003;375:455.
WHO, Atlas on Substances Use Resources for the Prevention and Treatment of Substances Use Disorders, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland 2010.
Tsefaye G, Drese A, HambiaMT Substance Abuse and Associated Factors among University Students in Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study. Journal of Addiction 2014, Articles ID 96983, 8 pages.http://dx.doi.or/10.155/2014/96983.
Whitsell M, Bachand A, Peel J, Brown M Familiat, Social and Individual Factors Contributing to Risk for Adolescent Substance Use. Journal of Addiction 2013, article ID 579310, 9 pages http://dx.org/10.155/2013/579310
StanleyPC, Odejide AO. Socio-Demographic and Forensic Characteristics of Alcohol Abusers in Jos, Nigeria. Nigeria Journal of Medicine 2002;11(3):113-117
Obot IS. The Measurement of Drinking Patterns and Alcohol Related Problems in Nigeria. Journal of Substance Abuse 2000; 12:169-181
Odejide AO, Ohaeri JU. Use and Abuse of Alcohol in Nigeria. An Overview.In: Proceedings of Regional Symposium on Use and Abuse of Alcohol, Babarone, Botswana 1988, 206-220.
Ohaeri JU, Oduyela SO; Odejide OA, Dipe TM.Ikwuagwu PU, Zamani A. The History and Drinking Behaviour of the Nigerian Students Palm Wine Drinkers Club. Drugs; Education, Prevention and Policy 1996;3,171-183.
Stanley PC (ed) Alcohol: A Silent Killer. Port Harcourt,University of Port Harcourt Press, 2003, 1-68.
Brisbee, S, Ordinioha B, Dienye FG Intersection between Alcohol Abuse and Intermiate Partner’s Violence in a Rural Ijaw Community in Bayelsa State, South-South Nigeria.Journal of Interpersonal Violence 2011. Doi.1177/088626051.
Kanyoni JM, Gishoma D. Ndahindora V. Prevalence of Psychoactive Substance Use among Youth in Rwanda. BMC research notes 2015;8:190 Doi:10.1186/s/3104-015-11482-2
Okoza J, Aluede O. Drug Abuse among Students of Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma Nigeria. Eur J Soc. Sci 2009,85-93
Otieno AO, Ofulla A. Drug Abuse in Kisiumu town Western Kenya Africa J. Food Agr Nutr Dev. 2009; 9(3):846-858
Atwoli L, Mungla PA, Ndungu MN, Kinoti KC, Ogot EM. Prevalence of Substance Use among College Students in Eldoret, Western Kenya. BMC Psychiatry. 2011;11:1-9
Reddy SP, Panday S, swart D, Jinabhai CC., Amisun SL, James S. et al. The South African Youth Risk Behaviour Survey 2002. Cape Town. South AfricanMedical Research Council 2003.
Abiodun OA, Adelekan MI, Ogunremi OO, Oni GA, Obayan AO. Pattern of substance use Amongst Secondary School Students in Illorin, Northern Nigeria. West Afr. J Med 1994; 13:91-97
Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. Surveillance Summaries Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2004; 53:55-2. Available from; http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/ss5302pdf
Sussman S, Skara S. Rodriguez Y Pokhrel P. Non-Drug Use and Drug Use-Specific Spirituality as one year Predictors of Drug Use among High Risk Youth. Substance Use Misuse 2006;41:1801-1816.
Akamnnioo, Adoyanto E. Correlates of Psychoactive Substance Use among Nigeria Adolescents. Sahel Medical Journal 2015;18(4);192-199.
Champion KE, Teeson M, Newton NC. Patterns and Correlates of New Psychoactive Substance Use in a Sample of Australian High School Students. Drug and Alcohol Review 2016; 35:338-344.
Manyike PC, Chinawa JM, Chinawa AT, Herbert AO, Nwokocha ARC, Odutola IO. Correlates for Psychoactive Substance Use among Boarding Secondary School Adolescents in Enugu, South East, Nigeria. BMC Pediatr 2016;16:78.
D; Chiara G, Bassareo V. Reward System and Addiction: What Dopamine does and doesn’t do. Current Opinion in Pharmacology; 2007; 7(1): 69-76.
Koob GF. Plasticity of Reward Neuro-circuitry and the Dark Side of Drug Addiction. Nature Neuroscience 2005;8:1442-1444.