Prevalence of Depressive Illness Among Patients with Asthmatic Disease Attending the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH)
American Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience
Volume 4, Issue 1, January 2016, Pages: 13-17
Received: Dec. 24, 2015; Accepted: Jan. 13, 2016; Published: Jan. 31, 2016
Views 3079      Downloads 80
Authors
Nkporbu Aborlo Kennedy, Department of Neuropsychiatry, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Ojule Inumanye Nkechi, Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Stanley Princewill Chukwuemeka, Department of Neuropsychiatry, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Asthmatic disease is a chronic distressing respiratory disease. Many sufferers of asthmatic diseases tend to have co morbid depressive illness of variable severity due to the psychological/emotional burden associated with the disease. There is currently a paucity of data on the exact prevalence of depressive illness associated with patients with Asthma in this environment. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of depressive illness in patients with asthmatic disease attending the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH). Consent for the study was obtained from the Ethical Committee of the hospital. Patients for the study were recruited from different departments of the hospital. Asthmatics patients recruited were only those diagnosed by Consultant Physicians in the Departments of study, who have been on treatment for at least a period of 6 months. Also, subjects whose psychiatric illness preceded the asthmatic disease were equally excluded from the study. A socio-demographic questionnaire as well as the Beck’s Depressive Inventory (BDI) was used as study instruments. The data obtained were analyzed using the SPSS version 20. Confidence interval was set at 95% and a P value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. A total of 46 patients were enlisted into the study. Out of the total number of 46 patients, 31(67.4%) of them were found to have depressive illness (56% mild, 29% moderate and 15% had major depressive illness). Five patients representing 10.9% had suicidal ideation and 2(4.3%) had actually attempted at least on two occasions. 65% mostly of the mild depressive illness were not aware of their mental ill-health. Only 9% of those who were aware of their psychiatric condition had sought psychiatric intervention. From the study, the prevalence of depressive illness among asthmatic patients in UPTH is high and many of the patients appear unfortunately not to receive appropriately treatment as diagnosis and referral are still relatively inadequate and imprecise. There is therefore, great need for awareness of the existence of this comorbidity as well as institution of appropriate identification measures and subsequent referral for appropriate treatment. This will undoubtedly improve the management of asthmatics as well as their quality of life.
Keywords
Prevalence, Depressive Illness, Asthmatic Disease, UPTH
To cite this article
Nkporbu Aborlo Kennedy, Ojule Inumanye Nkechi, Stanley Princewill Chukwuemeka, Prevalence of Depressive Illness Among Patients with Asthmatic Disease Attending the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH), American Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience. Vol. 4, No. 1, 2016, pp. 13-17. doi: 10.11648/j.ajpn.20160401.13
Copyright
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
World Health Organization: Bronchial asthma. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs206/en/print.html(revised January 2000).
[2]
CDC, National Center for Health Statistics. Asthma prevalence, health care use and mortality, 2000–2001. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/pubs/pubd/hestats/asthma/asthma.htm.
[3]
Barnes PJ, Jonsson B, Klim JB. The costs of asthma. EurRespir J 1996; 9: 636–42.
[4]
Hoskins G, McCowan C, Neville RG, Thomas GE, Smith B, Silverman R. Risk factors and costs associated with an asthma attack. Thorax 2000; 55: 19–24.
[5]
Miles JF, Garden GM, Turncliffe WS, Clayton RM, Ayres JG. Psychological morbidity and coping skills in patients with brittle and non-brittle asthma: A case-control study. ClinExp Allergy 1997; 27: 1151–9.
[6]
Cluley S, Cochrane GM. Psychological disorder is asthma is associated with poor control and poor adherence to inhaled steroids. Respir Med 2001; 95: 37–9.
[7]
Goldney RD, Ruffin R, Fisher LJ, Wilson DH. Asthma symptoms associated with depression and lower quality of life: a population survey. Med J Aust 2003; 178: 437–41.
[8]
Janson C, Bjornsson E, Hetta J, Boman G. Anxiety and depression in relation to respiratory symptoms and asthma. Am J RespirCrit Care Med 1994; 149: 930–4.
[9]
Van der Schoot TA, Kaptein AA. Pulmonary rehabilitation in an asthma clinic. Lung 1990; 168: 495–501.
[10]
Nejteck VA, Brown ES, Khan DA, Moore JJ, Van Wagner J, PerantieDC. Prevalence of mood disorders and relationship to asthma severity in patients at an inner-city asthma clinic. Ann Allerg Asthma Immunol 2001; 87: 129–33.
[11]
Perna G, Bertani A, Politi E, Colombo G, Bellodi L. Asthma and panic attacks. Biol Psychiatry 1997; 42: 625–30.
[12]
Nacimento I, Nardi AE, Valenca AM, et al. Psychiatric disorders in asthmatic outpatients. Psychiatry Res 2002; 110: 73–80.
[13]
Goodwin RD, Olfson M, Shea S, et al. Asthma and mental disorders in primary care. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2003; 25: 479–83.
[14]
Goodwin RD, Jacobi F, Thefeld W. Mental disorders and asthma in the community. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2003; 60: 1125–30.
[15]
Bateman ED, Boushey HA, Bousquet J, et al. Can guideline defined asthma control be achieved? The gaining optimal control of asthma study. Am J RespirCrit Care Med 2004; 170: 836–44.
[16]
Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA). Global strategy for asthma management and prevention: NHLBI/WHO Workshop Report. Bethesda: National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; 2002. Publication No. 02-3659.
[17]
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th ed (DSM-IV). Washington DC: American Psychiatric Press; 1994.
[18]
Kessler RC, McGonagle KA, Zhao S, et al. , Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United States. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1994; 51: 8–19.
[19]
Goodwin RD, Eaton WE. Asthma and the risk of panic attacks among adults in the community. Psychol Med 2003; 33: 879–85.
[20]
Breslau N, Kilby MM, Andreski P. Nicotine dependence and major depression: new evidence from a prospective investigation. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1993; 50: 31–5.
[21]
Hughes JR, Hatsukami D, Mitchell JE, Dahlgren LA. Prevalence of smoking among psychiatric outpatients. Am J Psychiatry 1986; 143: 993–7.
[22]
Pohl R, Yeragani VK, Balon R, Lycaki H, McBride R. Smoking in patients with panic disorder. Psychiatry Res 1992; 43: 253–62.
[23]
Chadhuri R, Livingston E, McMahon AD, Borland TL, Thomson NC. Cigarette smoking impairs the therapeutic response to oral corticosteroids in chronic asthma. Am J RespirCrit Care Med 2003; 168: 1308–11.
[24]
Mitsunobu F, Ashida K, Hosaki Y, et al. Influence of long-term cigarette smoking on immuglobulin E-mediated allergy, pulmonary function, and high-resolution computed tomography lung densitometry in elderly patients with asthma. ClinExp Allergy 2004; 34: 59–64.
[25]
Martinez JA, Mota GA, Vianna ED, Filho JT, Silva GA, Rodrigues Jr AL. Impaired quality of life of healthy young smokers. Chest 2004; 125: 425–8.
[26]
Bosley CM, Fosbury JA, Cochrane GM. The psychological factors associated with poor compliance with treatment in asthma. EurRespir J 1995; 8: 899–904.
[27]
Boulet LP, Deschesnes F, Turcotte H, Gignac F. Near-fatal asthma: clinical and physiologic features, perception of bronchoconstriction, and psychologic profile. J Allergy ClinImmunol 1991; 88: 838–46.
[28]
Hoehn-Saric R, McLeod DR, Funderburk F, Kowalski P. Somatic symptoms and physiologic responses in generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder: an ambulatory monitor study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2004; 61: 913–21.
[29]
Moore MC, ZebbBJ. The catastrophic misinterpretation of physiological distress. Behav Res Ther 1999; 37: 1105–18.
[30]
Higgs CMB, Richardson RB, Lea DA, Lewis GTR, Laszlo G. The influence of knowledge of peak flow on self- assessment of asthma. Studies with a coded peak flow meter. Thorax 1986; 41: 671–5.
[31]
Rietveld S, KolkAM, Prins PJM. The influence of respiratory sounds on breathlessness in children with asthma: a symptom perception approach. Health Psychol 1997; 16: 546–53.
[32]
Lehrer PM. Emotionally triggered asthma: a review of research literature and some hypotheses for self-regulation therapies. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback 1998; 23: 13–41.
[33]
Miller BD, Wood BL. Influence of specific emotional states on autonomic reactivity and pulmonary function in asthmatic children. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1997; 365: 669–77.
[34]
Kang DH, Coe CL, McCarthy DO. Academic examinations significantly impact immune responses, but not lung function, in healthy well-managed asthmatic adolescents. Brain Behav Immun 1996; 10: 164–81.
[35]
Kang DH, Coe CL, McCarthy DO, Ershler WB. Immune responses to final exams in healthy and asthmatic adolescents. Nurs Res 1997; 46: 112–9.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186