The Expanding Universe Without Big-Bang
American Journal of Physics and Applications
Volume 3, Issue 6-1, December 2015, Pages: 6-32
Received: Jun. 19, 2015; Accepted: Jul. 10, 2015; Published: Jun. 21, 2016
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Markos Georgallides, Larnaca, Cyprus Civil-Structural Engineer (NATUA), Athens, Greece
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Hypothesis without big-bang is analyzing Dark-matter, Dark-energy and reveals the way it occurs and how expansion is happening. Gravity–field is a Rest field, composed of two opposite signed elements (+s²), (-s²) consisting the minimum energy Quanta Spinning Space dipole, and jointed by the Gravity-force, which is the Maxwell`s - Gravity`s Displacement current and acting on any other moving or not particle. Because Dark-matter (±cs²), moves with constant light velocity, c, and is composed of two opposite signed elements (+cs²), (-cs²) and Dark-energy as Thrust moves with light velocity , so is continually effecting on the two fragments separately and on their dipole , the Dark-matter dipole is jointed by Gravity–force , formulating  Heap Mixture , of the spherical opposite signed elements highlighting , and the dipole  massive , heavy, invisible Dark matter, consisting dipole energy blobby volumes as Dark Fringes , and repel . The definitions for Quanta of Space and Energy have been elucidated. DM and DE move with light velocity so dilation and expansion have a parallel motion. Expansion occurs on the DM-DE Heap Mixture, by rolling on Gravity-field, with the maximum constant velocity, c, formulating, Zero → Discrete → Infinite Geometrical Universe. Philosophy was the first instrument of understanding world, which was evolute to geometry, math and physics. Euclid’s elements consist a small set of intuitively appealing axioms, proving many other propositions. Projective, Hyperbolic and Elliptic geometry is proved to be an Extrema in Euclidean geometry where on them Einstein's theory GR [A theory which has not elucidated the base of its Physical-content and adopted the wrong base of Non-Euclid geometries] is implicated and calls a circle segment as line and the spherical disk as plane in physical space. In  Space-Energy geometry  agrees with the Physical reality , on unit which is The Electromagnetic field of the Quantized on AB Energy Space Vector, on the contrary to General relativity of Space-time which is based on the rays of the non-Euclidean geometries to the limited velocity of  light and Planck`s cavity . Euclidean geometry elucidated the definitions of geometry-content, and describes the Space-Energy beyond Plank´s length level [Gravity Length 3,969.10 ̄ 62 m], reaching Point = =  m = 0 m, which is nothing and zero space. Quantization of Energy is done in Space-tanks, on material points, tiny volumes and on points consisting the Equilibrium Opposite Twin of Space Anti-space.
Dark Matter, Dark Energy, Expanding Universe
To cite this article
Markos Georgallides, The Expanding Universe Without Big-Bang, American Journal of Physics and Applications. Special Issue: Physics Quantum. Vol. 3, No. 6-1, 2015, pp. 6-32. doi: 10.11648/j.ajpa.s.2015030601.12
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