A Study of Radium Concentration and Radon Exhalation Rate in Soil Samples from Kassala Town, Sudan Using SSNTDs
American Journal of Physics and Applications
Volume 4, Issue 4, July 2016, Pages: 84-89
Received: Mar. 1, 2016; Accepted: Mar. 2, 2016; Published: Jun. 20, 2016
Views 4360      Downloads 215
Authors
Abd-Elmoniem A. Elzain, Department of Physics, University of Kassala, Kassala, Sudan; Department of Physics, College of Science & Art, Qassim University, Oklat Al-Skoor, Saudi Arabia
Y. Sh. Mohammed, Department of Physics, College of Science & Art, Qassim University, Oklat Al-Skoor, Saudi Arabia; Department of Physics, College of Education, Dalanj University, Dalanj, Sudan
Khidir Shaib Mohamed, Department of Mathematics, College of Science, Dalanj University, Dalanj, Sudan; Department of Mathematics, School of Mathematical Sciences, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, PR China
A. M. Mohamed-Ali, Department of Geophysics, College of Earth Sciences and Mining, Dongola University, Dongola, Sudan
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
In this work, we are presenting the results of radium concentration, surface and mass radon exhalation rates for a number of 209 soil samples collected from different locations of Kassala town, Sudan, by using the can technique, containing CR-39. The values of radium concentrations from soil samples were found to be ranging from 3.9 to 34.2 Bq.kg-1, with an average of 16.3 ± 1.6 Bq.kg-1. The surface and mass exhalation rates of radon were found to be from 0.84 to 7.35 Bq.m-2.h-1 and 17 to 148 mBq.kg-1.h-1, with an averages of 3.50 ± 0.35 Bq.m-2.h-1 and 70 ± 7 mBq.kg-1.h-1, respectively for the studied soil samples. From the results of this study we found that, there was a good correlation between radium concentration and radon exhalation rates in soil samples. The values of radium concentration determined in soil samples are less than the permissible value of 370 Bq.kg-1 recommended by Organization for Economic Cooperation and Developments, which is acceptable for safe use. Thus, results reveal that the area is safe as far the health hazard effects are concerned. Finally we compare our results with similar findings in different regions of Sudan and among other Countries.
Keywords
Radium Concentration, Radon Exhalation Rate, Passive Diffusion Radon Dosimeters, Soil
To cite this article
Abd-Elmoniem A. Elzain, Y. Sh. Mohammed, Khidir Shaib Mohamed, A. M. Mohamed-Ali, A Study of Radium Concentration and Radon Exhalation Rate in Soil Samples from Kassala Town, Sudan Using SSNTDs, American Journal of Physics and Applications. Vol. 4, No. 4, 2016, pp. 84-89. doi: 10.11648/j.ajpa.20160404.11
Copyright
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
B. Al-Bataina, and Abd Elmoniem A. Elzain "Seasonal Variation of Indoor Radon-222 Concentration Levels in Zarqa City, Jordan". Abhath Al-Yarmouk “Basic Sci. & Eng.” (2003), 12(1), pp. 191-202.
[2]
K. A. korany, M. S. El Nnagdy, S. F. Hassan, A. Shata, "Study of Radiation Hazards Indices and Radon Exhalation Rate in Soil Samples from Wadi Naseib Area, Sinai, Egypt", International Journal of Advanced Research in Physical Science (IJARPS), (2014), 4, pp. 7-15.
[3]
Abd Elmoniem A. Elzain, A. K. Sam, "Sudan Report to the Third Co-Ordination Meeting of the Project on: Measurement of indoor Radon Concentration in some Cities in Arab countries." Arab Atomic Energy Agency - Egyptian Atomic Energy Agency – Egypt - Cairo. 22-23/11/2005.
[4]
Abd-Elmoniem A. Elzain, "A Study of Indoor Radon Levels and Radon Effective Dose in Dwellings of Some Cities of Gezira State in Sudan", Nuclear Technology and Radiation Protection, (2014), 29(4), pp. 307-312.
[5]
Abd-Elmoniem A. Elzain, "Assessment of Indoor Radon Doses Received by the Students and Staff in Schools in Some Towns in Sudan", International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), (2015), 4(1), pp. 2566-2571.
[6]
Abd-Elmoniem A. Elzain, "Indoor Radon Levels in Different Types of Rooms and Building Materials.", in the 2nd International Conference On Radon in the Environment 2015", Krakow, Jordan Congress Bureau, Galaxy Hotel, POLAND, (2015), 25-29 May, 2015.
[7]
S. M. Farid, "Indoor Radon in Dwellings of Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia and its Correlations With the Radium and Radon Exhalation Rates from Soil", Indoor and Built Environment, (2016), 25(1), pp. 269-278.
[8]
H. Idriss, I. Salih, Abdulaziz S. Alaamer, M. Y. Abdelgalil, Salih Ali Salih, Amna M. Hasan, Mohammed A. ELtahir, Mustafa M. O. Ahamed "Study of Radon in Soil Gas, Trace Elements and Climatic Parameters Around South Kordofan State, Sudan", Environ Earth Sci., (2014), 72(2), pp. 335-339.
[9]
Abd Elmoniem A. Elzain, "Radon Exhalation Rates from Some Building Materials Used in Sudan" Indoor and Built Environment, (2015), 24(6), pp. 852-860.
[10]
Abd-Elmoniem A. Elzain, "Estimation of Soil Gas Radon Concentration and the Effective Dose Rate by Using SSNTDs", International Journal of Science and Research Publications (IJSRP), (2015), 5(2); pp. 3887-3891.
[11]
M. S. Khan, A. H. Naqvi, A. Azam and D. S. Srivastava., "Radium and Radon Exhalation Studies of Soil", Iran J Radiat Res., (2011), 8(4): pp. 207–210.
[12]
Abd-Elmoniem A. Elzain, "Dose Assessment to Inhalation Exposure of Indoor Radon in Sudan using SSNTDS", in the 4th International Conference On Radiation and Applications in Various Fields of Research - RAD 2016, Faculty of Electronic Engineering – Nis – Serbia (2016), 23-27 May, 2016.
[13]
A. Azam, A. H. Naqvi, D. S. Srivastava, "Radium Content and Radon Exhalation Measurement Using LR-115 type II Plastic Track Detectors", Nucl. Geophys, (1995), 9(6), pp. 653–657.
[14]
Rohit Mehra, Surinder Singh, and Kulwant Singh, "A Study of Uranium, Radium, Radon Exhalation Rate and Indoor Radon in the Environs of Some Areas of the Malwa Region, Punjab", Indoor and Built Environment, (2006), 15: pp. 499.
[15]
Abd-Elmoniem A. Elzain, Y. Sh. Mohammed, Kh. Sh. Mohammed, Sumaia S. M, "Radium and Radon Exhalation Studies in Some Soil Samples from Singa and Rabak Towns, Sudan using CR-39", International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), (2014), 3 (11), pp. 632-637.
[16]
Abd Elmoniem A. Elzain, A. K. Sam, O. M. Mukhtar, M. A. Abbasher, "A Survey of Indoor Radon - 222 Concentration Measurements in Kassala Town", Gezira Journal of Engineering & Applied Sciences, (2008), 3(2), pp. 72-100.
[17]
O. M. Mukhtar, Abd Elmoniem A. Elzain, Radon Mmonitoring at Khartoum Using the Charcoal Technique. Abhath Al-Yrmouk “Basic Sci. & Eng”. (2006), 15(2), pp. 225–235.
[18]
Abd Elmoniem A. Elzain, "Indoor Radon - 222 Concentrations in Some Cities in Kassala State, Eastern Sudan", In Proceedings of the 2011 International AASRT Symposium, Orlando, Florida, U.S.A., (2011), (2), pp. 71-84.
[19]
Abd Elmoniem A. Elzain, "Seasonal Variation of Radon - 222 Concentration in Shops and Pharmacies of Alzarqa Town- Jordan", In Proceedings of the 2011 International AASRT Symposium, Orlando, Florida, U.S.A., (2011), (2), pp. 38-45.
[20]
Abd-Elmoniem A. Elzain, "Indoor Radon Concentrations in Rufaa and Al-Hasahisa Towns in the Central Part of Sudan", in the 3rd International Conference On Radiation and Applications in Various Fields of Research - RAD 2015, Slovenska Plaza, Budva, Montenegro, (2015), 8-12 June, 2015.
[21]
Abd-Elmoniem A. Elzain, "Radon in Workplaces in Khartoum town, Capital of Sudan", in the 3rd International Conference On Radiation and Applications in Various Fields of Research - RAD 2015, Slovenska Plaza, Budva, Montenegro, (2015), 8-12 June, 2015.
[22]
Abd Elmoniem A. Elzain, A. K. Sam, O. M. Mukhtar and M. A Abbasher "Measurements of Radon Gas Concentration in a Soil at Some Towns in Kassala State." Gezira Journal of Engineering & Applied Sciences, (2009), 4(1), pp. 15-42.
[23]
Abd-Elmoniem A. Elzain, "Determination of Soil Gas Radon Concentration from Some Locations of Gedarif Town, Sudan by Using CR-39", in the 3rd International Conference in Energy Challenges and Mechanics (ECM3) - towards a big picture, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK, (2015), 7–9, July, 2015.
[24]
Abd-Elmoniem A. Elzain, "Determination of Radium Concentration and Radon Exhalation Rate in Soil Samples Using CR-39", Advances in Applied Science Research, (2015) 6(2), pp. 92-102.
[25]
Abd Elmoniem A. Elzain, "Measurement of Radon-222 Concentration Levels in Water Samples in Sudan "Advances in Applied Science Research, (2014), 5(2), pp. 229-234.
[26]
Abd Elmoniem A. Elzain, "A Study on the Radon Concentrations in Drinking Water in Kassala State (Eastern Sudan) and the Associated Health Effects", World Applied Sciences Journal, (2014), 31(3), pp. 367-375.
[27]
F. Abu-Jarad, "Application of Nuclear Track Etch Detector for Radon Related Measurements", Nucl. Track Radiat. Meas. J., (1988), 15, pp. 525-534.
[28]
H. W. Alter and P. B. Price "Radon Detection Using Track Registration Material", US Patent, (1972), 3, pp. 665, 194 Terradex Corp, 1972.
[29]
Mohamed Abd-Elzaher, "An Overview on Studying Rn-222 Exhalation Rates Using Passive Technique Solid-State Nuclear Track Detectors", American Journal of Applied Sciences, (2012), 9 (10), pp. 1653-1659.
[30]
G. Somogyi "The Environmental Behavior of Radium", Technical Reports Series No. 310, vol. 1. IAEA, Vienna, (1990), pp. 229–256.
[31]
G. Somogyi, A. Hafez, I. Hunyadi and M. Toth–Szilagyi, "Measurement of Exhalation and Diffusion Parameters of Radon in Solids by Plastic Track Detectors", Nucl. Tracks Radiat. Meas., (1986), 12(1-6), pp. 701-704.
[32]
D. M. B. Baruah, P. C. Deka, M. Rahman, "Measurement of Radium Concentration and Radon Exhalation Rate in Soil Samples Using SSNTDs", The African Review of Physics, (2013), 8(32), pp. 215–218.
[33]
M. E. M, "Water Resources Assessment Kassala Gash Basin. The Democratic Republic of the Sudan", Ministry of Energy and Mining (M. E. M.), National Administration, The Kingdom of the Netherlands, Ministry of International Corporation, Groundwater Survey, (1982), Final Technical Report, 1982.
[34]
Sintie Welelaw, M. K. Bhardwaj, "Assessment of Hazards Due to Radon's Mass and Surface Exhalation Rates; and Radium Content in Soil Samples of Lalibela, Ethiopia", I. J. E. M. S., (2013), 4 (4), pp. 445-448.
[35]
M. Zubair, M. Shakir Khan, D. Verma, "Measurement of Radium Concentration and Radon Exhalation Rates of Soil Samples Collected from Some Areas of Bulandshahr District, Uttar Pradesh, India Using Plastic Track Detectors", Iran. J. Radiat. Res., (2012), 10(2), pp. 83-87.
[36]
Hesham A. Youssef, A. A. Embaby, A. H. El-Farrash and H. A. Laken, "Radon Exhalation Rate in Surface Soil of Graduate's Villages in West Nile Delta, Egypt, Using Can Technique", International Journal of Recent Scientific Research, (2015), 6 (4), pp. 3440-3446.
[37]
Ranjan Kr. Kakatia, Lukendra Kakatib and T. V. Ramachandran, "Measurement of Uranium, Radium and Radon Exhalation Rate of Soil Samples from Karbi Anglong District of Assam, India Using EDXRF and Can technique Method", APCBEE Procedia., (2013), 5, pp. 186–191.
[38]
B. P. Singh, B, Pandit, V, N, Bhardwaj, Paramjit Singh, Rajesh Kumar, "A study of Radium and Radon Exhalation Rate in Some Solid Samples Using Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors", Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics, (2010), 48, pp. 493-495.
[39]
(OECD) Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. In: Exposure to Radiation from Natural Radioactivity in Building Materials. Report by a group of Experts of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, OECD, Paris, France, 1979.
[40]
UNSCEAR, United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiations, United Nations, New York, 1993.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186