High Prevalence of Intestinal Parasite Carriage Among Food Handlers in the Gambia
International Journal of Food Science and Biotechnology
Volume 2, Issue 1, February 2017, Pages: 1-5
Received: Jan. 29, 2017;
Accepted: Feb. 21, 2017;
Published: Mar. 9, 2017
Views 1388 Downloads 103
Haruna S. Jallow, National Public Health Laboratories, Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, Banjul, The Gambia
Abou Kebbeh, National Public Health Laboratories, Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, Banjul, The Gambia
Olliemattou Sagnia, National Public Health Laboratories, Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, Banjul, The Gambia
Baba Fofona, Medical Microbiology Laboratory, Edward Francis Small Teaching Hospital, Banjul, The Gambia
Sana M. Sambou, Epidemiology and Disease Control Department, Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, Banjul, The Gambia
Yaya Camara, Epidemiology and Disease Control Department, Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, Banjul, The Gambia
Ignatius Baldeh, National Public Health Laboratories, Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, Banjul, The Gambia
Bakary Sanneh, National Public Health Laboratories, Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, Banjul, The Gambia
Follow on us
Background: Most of the world population is approximately infected with intestinal parasites, the burden of this infection is mainly found in people living in developing countries where hygiene and environmental sanitation are poor. Gambia is not an exception to this phenomenon of poor hygiene and sanitation, therefore is at high risk of intestinal parasitic burden. Thus, this study seeks to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of parasitic infections among food handlers who sells food at Lower Basic Schools in the West Coast Region in The Gambia. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study used 540 stool samples stored at 10% formaldehyde collected from different food handlers during a study titled (Prevalence and risk factors of fecal carriage of Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae amongst food handlers in Lower Basic Schools in West Coast Region of The Gambia). Stool samples were examined microscopically using both normal saline and iodine for identification of cysts and eggs, larval of intestinal parasites using direct microscopes. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 16 and Microsoft excel version 2010 software to determine the risk factors. Results: Of the 540 food handlers administered, 536 (99.3%) were females. It was found that 250 (46.3%) were intestinal parasite carriers. Entameoba histolytica/dispar 150 (46%) followed by Giadia lamblia 52 (16%), E. coli 40 (12.3%), E. harmana 20 (6.1%), Strongloides 18 (5.5%), Ascaris lumbricoides 14 (4.3%), Iodamoeba butschlii, 9 (2.8%), Teania spp. 6 (1.8%), Diphyllobotrum latum 3 (0.9%), Hookworm 3 (0.9%), Fasiola hepatica 2 (0.6%), Hymenolepis dimunta 2 (0.6%), Tricguris Trichura 1 (0.3%), Fasiola Buski 1 (0.3%), Hymenolepis nana 1 (0.3%) and V. nana 4 (1.2%) were the parasites identified from the studied. Most of the food handlers were certified for handling food 483 (89.4%) and 492 (91.2%) know the principle of food safety. Among the risk factors, living with domestic animals, lack of training in food handling and hand washing practices with P-value of (0.014), (0.017), and (0.056) respectively and 95% Confidence Interval was associated risk factors of intestinal parasite infections. Conclusions: This study showed high prevalence of intestinal parasites among food handlers. Training of food handlers on proper methods of food preparation and practice of good personal hygiene should be conducted on regular basis. Since, transmissions of intestinal parasites are by fecal-oral route, food handlers are important sources of infections. Epidemiological surveillance and quarterly screening of food handlers should be done by qualified personnel for isolation of intestinal parasites.
Food Handlers, Intestinal Parasites, Risk Factors, Prevalence, West Coast Region, The Gambia
To cite this article
Haruna S. Jallow,
Sana M. Sambou,
High Prevalence of Intestinal Parasite Carriage Among Food Handlers in the Gambia, International Journal of Food Science and Biotechnology.
Vol. 2, No. 1,
2017, pp. 1-5.
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
M. Mama and G. Alemu, “Prevalence and factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections among food handlers of Southern Ethiopia: cross sectional study.,” BMC Public Health, vol. 16, p. 105, Jan. 2016.
E. Beatriz, S. Lauren, C. Rodrigues, and G. H. Bahia-de-oliveira, “detection of intestinal parasites in the environments of a public school in the town of diamantina, minas gerais state, brazil,” no. 1, pp. 2–5, 2016.
F. Kheirandish, M. J. Tarahi, and B. Ezatpour, “Prevalence of intestinal parasites among food handlers in Western Iran.,” Rev. do Inst. Med. Trop. São Paulo, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 111–4, 2014.
M. Dagnew, M. Tiruneh, F. Moges, and Z. Tekeste, “Survey of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and intestinal parasites among food handlers working at Gondar University, Northwest Ethiopia,” BMC Public Health, vol. 12, no. 1, p. 1, 2012.
W. L. Rivera, J. A. D. L. Yason, and D. E. V Adao, “Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar infections in captive macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in the Philippines,” Primates, vol. 51, pp. 69–74, 2010.
T. Tefera and G. Mebrie, “Prevalence and predictors of intestinal parasites among Food Handlers in Yebu Town, Southwest Ethiopia,” PLoS ONE 9(10) e110621. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0110621: vol. 9, no. 10, pp. 1–5, 2014.
M. Elmi, “Food safety,” Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal vol. 14, pp. 143–149, 1948.
S. Paulo, “Prevalence of intestinal parasites among food handlers in western iran,” Rev. Med. S. Paulo: vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 111–114, 2014.
D. Oliveira, F. S. Ferreira, J. Atouguia, F. Fortes, A. Guerra, and S. Centeno-Lima, “Infection by Intestinal Parasites, Stunting and Anemia in School-Aged Children from Southern Angola.,” PLoS One, vol. 10, no. 9, p. e0137327, Jan. 2015.
S. helminthiases, “as a public health problem in children,” 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002378:2011.
A. Aklilu, D. Kahase, M. Dessalegn, N. Tarekegn, S. Gebremichael, S. Zenebe, K. Desta, G. Mulugeta, Y. Mamuye, and M. Mama, “Prevalence of intestinal parasites, salmonella and shigella among apparently health food handlers of Addis Ababa University student’s cafeteria, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.,” BMC Res. Notes, vol. 8, p. 17, Jan. 2015.
P. P. Duc, H. Nguyen-viet, J. Hattendorf, J. Zinsstag, P. D. Cam, and P. Odermatt, “Risk factors for Entamoeba histolytica infection in an agricultural community in Hanam province, Vietnam,” Parasit. Vectors, vol. 4, no. 1, p. 102, 2011.
M. Abdel-Dayem, R. Al Zou’bi, R. B. Hani, and Z. S. Amr, “Microbiological and parasitological investigation among food handlers in hotels in the Dead Sea area, Jordan.,” J. Microbiol. Immunol. Infect., vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 377–80, Oct. 2014.
F. Wadilo, F. Solomon, A. Arota, and Y. Abraham, “Intestinal Parasitic Infection and Associated Factors among Food Handlers in South Ethiopia : A Case of Wolaita Sodo Town,” vol. 9, pp. 18–23, 2016.
Neglected tropical disease (schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminths) mapping report May-June, 2015.