Pruning Effects on the Health of Indian Sandalwood (Santalum album Linn) in Agroforestry Conditions of South India
American Journal of Plant Biology
Volume 4, Issue 1, March 2019, Pages: 1-6
Received: Mar. 18, 2019; Accepted: Apr. 29, 2019; Published: Jun. 12, 2019
Views 589      Downloads 100
Ramachandran Sundararaj, Forest Protection Division, Institute of Wood Science and Technology, Malleshwaram, Bangalore, India
Soma Mondal, Forest Protection Division, Institute of Wood Science and Technology, Malleshwaram, Bangalore, India
Mustipally Kanthareddy, Forest Protection Division, Institute of Wood Science and Technology, Malleshwaram, Bangalore, India
Article Tools
Follow on us
Surveys in south India revealed that Santalum album Linn. is commonly grown with forest trees and horticultural and agricultural crops. As a silvicultural practices in cultivation of S. album though pruning is not recommended many farmers follow the practice of regular pruning there by adversely affecting the health of trees. Severely pruned trees were found losing their erectness and bending indicating that pruning causes change, disorder and affect many physiological functions resulting in deterioration of overall tree health. The wounds caused by pruning sever tissue connections and enhances the infection of decay fungi. It attracts the infestation of insect pests particularly the stem and wood borers. The incidence of bark caterpillar Indarbela quardinotata Walker, red stems borer Zeuzera coffeae Nietn. and heart wood borer Aristobia octofasciculata Aurivillius was found significantly higher in pruned plantations compared un-pruned plantations. The heartwood loss ranging from 22.6 to 34.5% was observed during extraction and this loss might be attributed due to the adverse effect of pruning and other mechanical injuries inducing infection of decay fungi and infestation of stem borers in young plantations of S. album. Hence, to avoid not only the pruning but also any silvicultural practices that cause injury to sandalwood are recommended for its healthy growth and thereby to obtain desirable returns.
Santalum Album, Stem Borer, Pruning, Silviculture, Agroforestry
To cite this article
Ramachandran Sundararaj, Soma Mondal, Mustipally Kanthareddy, Pruning Effects on the Health of Indian Sandalwood (Santalum album Linn) in Agroforestry Conditions of South India, American Journal of Plant Biology. Vol. 4, No. 1, 2019, pp. 1-6. doi: 10.11648/j.ajpb.20190401.11
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
R. Hansda (2009). The outlook for non wood forest products in Asia and Pacific. Working Paper No. APFSOS II/WP/2009/18. Food and Agriculture Organisations Regional Office, Bangkok, p. 89.
A. N. Arun Kumar, G. Joshi and H. Y. Mohan Ram (2012). Sandalwood: history, uses, present status and the future. Current Science 103 (2): 1408-1416.
H. S. Ananthapadmanabha (2000). Sandalwood and its marketing trend. My forest 36: 147-151.
N. M. Rao, S. Padmini, K. N. Ganeshaiah and R. Umashankar (1999). Sandal genetic resources of South India: threats and conservation approaches. p. 63. In: National symposium on role of plant tissue culture in biodiversity conservation and economic development. Kosi-Katarmal, Alomora.
V. S. V. Gowda, K. B. Patil and B. H. Anilkumar (2008). Natural sandalwood industry- present scenario and future prospects. In: Proceedings of the National seminar on “Conservation, improvement, cultivation and management of sandal (Santalum album L)” S. Gairola, T. S. Rathore, G. Joshi, A. N. Arun Kumar and Pankaj Aggarwal, Eds, Brilliant Printers, Bangalore, pp. 196-203.
R. Sundararaj, R. R. Shanbhag and B. Lingappa (2018). Habitat diversification in the cultivation of Indian sandalwood (Santalum album Linn): An ideal option to conserve biodiversity and manage insect pests. Journal of Biological Control 32 (3): 160-164.
T. Lion (2017). “Sandalwood cultivation”. International Journal of Development Research 7 (08), 14826-14830.
A. Eskalen, S. Rooney-Lathamand W. D. Gubler (2005). Occurrence of Togninia fraxinopennsylvanica on esca-diseased grapevines (Vitis vinifera) and declining ash trees (Fraxinus latifolia) in California. Plant Disease 89: 528.
S. Rooney-Latham, A. Eskalen and W. D. Gubler (2005). Teleomorph formation of Phaeoacremonium aleophilum, cause of esca and grapevine decline in California. Plant Disease 89: 177–184.
M. A. Baloyi, F. Halleen, L. Mostert and A, Eskalen (2013). First report of Togninia minima perithecia on esca- and Petri-diseased grapevines in South Africa. Plant Disease 97: 124.
D. Gramaje, M. León, A. Pérez-Sierra, T. Burgess and J. Armengol (2014) New Phaeoacremonium species isolated from sandalwood trees in Western Australia. IMA Fungus, 5 (1): 67–77.
T. I. Burgess and E. Steel. (2018). To prune or not to prune; pruning induced decay in tropical sandalwood. Forest Ecology and Management, 430: 204-218.
C. Castrillon and J. G. Herrera (1980). Los picudos, negros y rayados del plátano y banano. ICA-Informa, Separata, 1–4.
J. M. S. Ferreira, D. R. N. Warwick and L. A. Siquei, eds (1994). Cultura do coqueiro no Brasil. EMBRAPA–SPI, Aracajú, Brazil.
D. Mariau and B. Mallet (1999). Cultural techniques. In: D. Mariau (ed) Integrated Pest Management of Tropical Perennial Crops, translation of Lutte Intégrée contre les Ravageurs des Cultures Pérennes Tropicales, published by Centre de Coopération International en Recherché Agronomique pour le Development, 1997. Science Publishers and CIRAD, Enfield, New Hampshire, USA, p. 112–122.
F. W. Howard (2001). Principles of Insect Pest Control on Palms in Insects on Palms, F. W. Howard, D. Moore, R. M. Giblin-Davis and R. G. Abad (eds). CABI Publishing, CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon OX10 8DE, UK, p. 315-321.
N. E. Gunawardena, F. Kern, E. Janssen, C. Meegoda, D. Schafer, O. Vostrowsky and H. J. Bestmann (1998). Host attractants for red weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus: identification, electrophysiological activity, and laboratory bioassay. Journal of Chemical Ecology 24: 425–437.
R. Sundararaj, J. J. Wilson and D. Vimala (2019). Stem borers of Indian sandalwood (Santalum album Linn) in Karnataka, India. Journal of Indian Academy of Wood Science
F. Tavankara, A. E. Bonyadb and B. Majnounianc (2015). Affective factors on residual tree damage during selection cutting and cable-skidder logging in the Caspian forests, Northern Iran. Ecological Engineering 83: 505-512.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186