Assessment of the Levels and Potential Health Risk Posed by Selected Organophosphate Pesticide Residues in Vegetable Farms in Manzini Region, Eswatini
International Journal of Bioorganic Chemistry
Volume 4, Issue 1, June 2019, Pages: 53-63
Received: Feb. 18, 2019; Accepted: Mar. 30, 2019; Published: May 6, 2019
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Authors
Gabriel Chewe Bwembya, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Eswatini, Kwaluseni, Eswatini
Paul Junior, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Eswatini, Kwaluseni, Eswatini
Justice Mandla Thwala, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Eswatini, Kwaluseni, Eswatini
Sipho Samuel Mamba, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Eswatini, Kwaluseni, Eswatini
Tesfamariam Yosief Debessai, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Eswatini, Kwaluseni, Eswatini
Nomfundo Dlamini, Department of Food Science, Nutrition and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Nairobi, Kabete, Kenya
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Abstract
The study investigated qualitatively and quantitatively the presence of organophosphate pesticide (OPP) residues in cabbages, tomatoes and soil from vegetable gardens of Manzini region and assessed the health risk to consumers. Samples were analysed using QuEChERS extraction technique and GC-ECD. Mean recoveries of the pesticides range from 70.61% to 103.76%. Among 26 samples of cabbages analysed, 8 samples (30.77%) contained residues of dichlorvos with a mean concentration of 2.889 ± 0.617 mg/kg, 8 samples (30.77%) contained residues of dimethoate with mean concentration of 2.898 ± 0.894 mg/kg while 5 samples (19.23%) contained both dichlorvos and dimethoate. The highest concentration of dichlorvos of 5.460 ± 0.911 mg/kg was found in Ngwempisi cabbages while the lowest concentration of 0.415 mg/kg was in Mgazini cabbages. The highest amount of dimethoate of 13.150 ± 3.246 mg/kg was in Matfunjwa cabbages while the lowest amount of dimethoate of 0.106 ± 0.187 mg/kg was in Boyane cabbages. All the contaminated cabbages had residue levels above the Codex (FAO/WHO) and EU MRLs. None of the 15 samples of tomatoes was found to be contaminated with organophosphate pesticides. Out of 41 samples of soil, chlorpyrifos was detected in only 3 samples (7.32%) with mean concentration of 1.145 ± 0.136 mg/kg. The highest amount of 2.778 ± 0.134 mg/kg was found in soil from Buoyane. The health risk estimate also demonstrated that the levels of pesticides residues in cabbages pose health threat to consumers. The results of this study provide a database on the levels of organophosphate pesticide residues in vegetables in the Manzini region to the Ministries of Agriculture and Health. This will help introduce safer pesticide management practices. It will also bring awareness to the general public on the dangers of OPPs to human health and environment.
Keywords
Health-Risk, GC-ECD, Organophosphate Pesticides, QuEChERS, Vegetables
To cite this article
Gabriel Chewe Bwembya, Paul Junior, Justice Mandla Thwala, Sipho Samuel Mamba, Tesfamariam Yosief Debessai, Nomfundo Dlamini, Assessment of the Levels and Potential Health Risk Posed by Selected Organophosphate Pesticide Residues in Vegetable Farms in Manzini Region, Eswatini, International Journal of Bioorganic Chemistry. Vol. 4, No. 1, 2019, pp. 53-63. doi: 10.11648/j.ijbc.20190401.18
Copyright
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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