International Journal of Bioorganic Chemistry
Volume 4, Issue 1, June 2019, Pages: 42-46
Received: Feb. 6, 2019;
Accepted: Mar. 22, 2019;
Published: Apr. 18, 2019
Views 303 Downloads 88
Aserse Yenasew, Biology, Food Science and Nutrition Division, Ethiopia Institute of Agricultural Research, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
This review paper was conducted to show the current status of aflatoxin contamination level of some selected crop commodities. Different data sources were collected from January, 2018 up to February, 2019 from published, unpublished and other scientific research reports. The results reported by different authors indicated that total aflatoxin, AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 are the aflatoxin types that contaminate groundnut, red pepper, maize, malt barely, sorghum and other types of crop commodities. According to different authors and research reports showed AFB1 is the most common aflatoxin type that contaminates different crops. Based on the review, the current aflatoxin contamination level of some Ethiopian crops were above permissible level according to the FAO/WHO and EU standards. This indicates that most Ethiopia people consume different crops that contaminated by aflatoxin due to lack of awareness about the cause and the effects of aflatoxin. The increment of temperature and moisture content were favorable for the growth of aflatoxigenic fungi. Different authors reported that the moisture and temperature increases, the aflatoxin contamination level of crops also increases.
Aflatoxin Contamination Level of Different Crops in Ethiopia, International Journal of Bioorganic Chemistry.
Vol. 4, No. 1,
2019, pp. 42-46.
Guo B, Chen Z, Lee RD, Secully BT (2008). Drought stress and pre harvest aflatoxin contamination in agricultural commodity.
Saleemullah Al, Iqtidar AK, Hamidullah S (2006). Aflatoxin contents of stored and artificially inoculated cereals and nuts.
Schmale DG (1998). Mycotoxins in crops: A threat to human and domestic animal health. Virginia polytechnic institute and state university, Blacksburg, Vagary P. Munkvoldlowa state university, Ames.
Herrman T (2006). Mycotoxins in feed grains and ingredients . grain science and industry Kansas state university agricultural experiment station and cooperative extension service department of grain science and industry.
G. F. P. Piva, Fabio G, Amedeo P, Andrea P (1995). Detoxification methods of aflatoxins. A review.
Burch DGS, Rosell C (2001). The role of mycotoxins in pmws-factor or Fiction.
Cokosyler N (1999). Farkh yontemelerle kurutulan kir. mizi biberlerde aspergillus flavus gelisimi ye aflatoksin olusumunun incelenmesi, Gida
Brera C, Debegnach F, Desantis B, Lafrate E, Pannuni E, Berdini C, Prantera E, Gregori E, Miraglia M. Ochratoxin A in Cocoa and chocolate products from the Italian market: occurance and exposure assessment. Food control 2011; 22:1663-1667.
IARC (international agency for the research on cancer), (2002). Monograph on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Lyon: IARC press.
Lizarraga-Paulin EG, Moreno- Martinez E, Mirandacastrosp. (2011). Aflatoxins and their impact on human and animal health: An emerging problem. Aflatoxins- Biochemistry and molecular biology, Ramon G, Guevara-Gonzalez (ED), ISBN: 978-953307-395-8, Intec.
Ayalew A, Fehrmann H, Lepschybeck R, Abate D (2006). Natural occurrence of mycotoxins in stable cereals from Ethiopia.
Amare A, Dawit A, Mengistu H (1995). Mycoflora, aflatoxins and resistance of groundnut cultivars from eastern Ethiopia.
Abdi M, Alemayehu C, Mashilla D, Chemeda F, David AH, Sobolev, Victor S, and Arias, r. s.,’’ aspergillus and aflatoxins in groundnut (Arachis hypogeal) and groundnut cake in Eastern Ethiopia’’(2016). Publications from USDA-ARS/UNL faculty.1809.
Besrat A, Gebre P (1981). A preliminary study on the aflatoxin content of selected Ethiopia foods. Ethiop med j. 19: 47-52.
Chala A, Mohammed A, Ayalew A, Skinnes H (2012). Natural occurrence of aflatoxins in groundnut (Arachis hypogaeal L.) form eastern Ethiopia. Food control. In press.
Chala A, Mohammed A, Ayalew A, Skinnes H (2013). Natural occurance of aflatoxins in groundnut (Arachis hypogaealL.)From eastern Ethiopia. Food control.30:602-605.
Amare A (2010). Mycotoxins and surface and internal fungi of maize from Ethiopia.
Masresha A, Negero G, Geremew T (2016). Aspergillus species and aflatoxin contamination of pre and post-harvest maize grain in west Gojjam, Ethiopia.
Wondemineh T, Amare A, Alemayehu C, Mahillaa D (2016). Aflatoxin B1 and total fumonisin contamination and their producing fungi in fresh and stored sorghum grain in east hararghe, Ethiopia.
Alemu T, Birhanu G, Azerefgne F, Skinners H (2008). Evidence for mycotoxin contamination of maize in southern Ethiopia.
Geremew T (2015). Study on aspergillus species and aflatoxin levels in sorghum (sorghum bicolor L.) stored at different period and storage system in kewet districts, Northern Shewa, Ethiopia.
Dubale B, Solomon A, Geremew B, Sethumadhava RG, Waktole S (2014). Mycoflora of grain (Zea mayes) stored in traditional storage containers (gombisiaa and sacks) in selected woredas of Jimma zone, Ethiopia.
Hell K, Fandohan P, Bandyopadhyay R, Kiewnick S, Sikora R, Cotty PJ (2005). Fungal and mycotoxin contamination of Nigerian foods and feeds. Hell K, Fandohan P, Bandyopadhyay R, Kiewnick S, Sikora R, Cotty PJ. 2005.
Chala A, Taye W, Ayalew A, Krska R, Sulyok M, Logrieco A (2014). Multimycotoxin analysis of sorghum (sorghum bicolor L. Moench) and finger millet (Eleusine coracana L. Garten) from Ethiopia.
Addis A (2017). Comparative study of aflatoxins level between traditional and industrial barely malt in Ethiopia.