Enzymatic Degumming of Ray Liver Oil Using Phospholipase A1: Efficiency, Yield and Effect on Physicochemical Parameters
International Journal of Bioorganic Chemistry
Volume 2, Issue 3, September 2017, Pages: 87-93
Received: Feb. 15, 2017; Accepted: Mar. 9, 2017; Published: Mar. 29, 2017
Views 1812      Downloads 139
Daniela Lorena Lamas, National Council of Scientific and Technical Research, Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina; National Institute of Fisheries Research and Development, Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Agueda Elena Massa, National Council of Scientific and Technical Research, Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina; National Institute of Fisheries Research and Development, Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Article Tools
Follow on us
Crude oils have components such as metals, pigments, phospholipids and waxes, which alter its physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics. These components are commonly removed during the refining process by physicochemical methods. In recent decades, the oil industry has desired the development of biotechnological processes to replace traditional methods. In this paper the enzymatic degumming of ray liver oil is presented as an alternative innovative, sustainable and process to chemical degumming. The traditional process was performed using citric acid, while the enzymatic process was performed using the enzyme phospholipase A1 as degumming agent. Both treatments were performed in a batch thermostated reactor. The efficiency of the enzyme process, assessed by removing phosphorus percentage content, was significantly higher compared to the traditional treatment, (54.70% and 81.31% respectively). The quality characteristics of crude and degummed oils was determined by acidity, peroxide, p-anisidine and TOTOX indexes, beyond moisture, fatty acids contents, color and density. The fatty acid profile was rich in polyunsaturated omega-3 ratio in all the samples analyzed. Quality parameters evaluated were slightly modified by both degumming processes, highlighting a favorable change in the color and appearance of the oil obtained by the process carried out with enzymes. The obtained results suggest that the enzymatic process produces significant improved quality and nutritional values, with better attempt fish oil characteristics for use in the pharmaceutical and functional foods.
Ray Liver Oil, Fatty Acids, Enzymatic Degumming, Quality, Stability
To cite this article
Daniela Lorena Lamas, Agueda Elena Massa, Enzymatic Degumming of Ray Liver Oil Using Phospholipase A1: Efficiency, Yield and Effect on Physicochemical Parameters, International Journal of Bioorganic Chemistry. Vol. 2, No. 3, 2017, pp. 87-93. doi: 10.11648/j.ijbc.20170203.12
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
A. Massa, N. Hozbor, L. Lucifora and J. H. Colonello, “Sugerencias de manejo para el 2003 de gatuzo (Mustelus schmitti), peces ángel (Squatina spp.) y rayas costeras (familia Rajidae)”, Informe Técnico Interno INIDEP, 47, 2003, pp. 13.
R. P. Sanchez, G. Navarro, E. Calvo. and F. Del Castillo, “La pesca y. comercialización de condrictios en la Argentina”, Aporte de la Dirección Nacional de Planificación Pesquera para la elaboración del Plan de Acción Nacional. En Wohler O. C., Cedrola, O. and Cousseau M. B. (Eds.). “Contribuciones sobre Biología Pesca y comercialización de tiburones en la Argentina”, 2011, pp. 151-184.
N. M. Hozbor, A. M. Massa, and O. Wohler, “Recomendaciones sobre tiburones y. rayas: Impacto de las medidas establecidas a través del Acta CFP N. 32/2009”, Informe Técnico Interno INIDEP, 30, 2012, pp. 8.
K. Kelleher, “Discards in the world's marine fisheries. An update”. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper N 470 Rome, 2005, pp. 131.
N. E. García Nuñez, “Tiburones: conservación pesca y comercio internacional. Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Medio Rural y Marino. Ed bilingüe, Madrid, 2008, pp. 117.
G. Navarro-Garcia, R. Pacheco-Aguilar, L. Bringas- Alvarado, and J. Ortega-Garcia, “Characterization of the lipid composition and natural antioxidants in the liver oil of Dasyatis brevis and Gymnuramarmorata rays”. Food Chem. 87, 2004, pp. 89-96.
S. Akabas, R. Deckelbaum, “N-3 fatty acids: recommendations for therapeutic and prevention”, Am. J. Clin Nutr. 83, 2006, pp. 1451-1462.
M. B., MacLennan, S. E. Clarke, K. Perez, G. A. Wood, W. J. Muller, J. X. Kang, and D. W. Ma, “Mammary tumor development is directly inhibited by lifelong n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids”, J. Nutr. Biochem. 24 (1), 2013, pp. 388–395.
T. O. Eroldoğan, A. H. Yılmaz, G. M. Turchini, M. Arslan, N. A. Sirkecioğlu, K. Engin, I. Özşahinoğlu, and P, Mumoğullarında, “Fatty acid metabolism in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax): effects of n-6 PUFA and MUFA in fish oil replaced diets”, Fish Physiol. Biochem. 2013, pp. 941-955.
A. Ozylmaz, and A. Oksuz, “Determination of the biochemical properties of liver oil from selected cartilaginous fish living in the northeastern Mediterranean”, J. Anim. Plant Sci. 25, 2015, pp. 160– 167.
M. M. Morais, L. A. A. Pinto, S. C. A. Ortiz, V. T. Crexi, R. L. Silva, and J. D. Silva, “Study of fish oil refining process”, Rev. Inst. Adolf Lutz. 60 (1), 2001, pp. 23–33.
V. T. Crexi, L. A. S. Soares, L. A. A. Pinto, “Carp (Cyprinus carpio) oils obtained by fish meal and ensilage processes: Characteristics and lipid profiles”, Int, J. Food Sci. Technol. 44, 2009, pp. 1642–1648.
M. L. Menegazzo, M. E. Petenuci, and G. G. Fonseca, “Production and characterization of crude and refined oils obtained from the co-products of Nile tilapia and hybrid sorubim processing”. Food Chem. 2014, pp. 100–104.
S. H Suseno, A. M. Jacoeb, S. Bija, N. Fitriana, N. Puspa Ruspatti, “The effect of citric acid and sodium chloride (NaCl) to quality of sardine oil (Sardinella Sp.),” Pak. J. Biotechnol. 13 (3), 2016, pp. 181 – 186.
American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS), “Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the American Oil Chemists Society”, AOCS Press, Champaign, US, 2009.
International union of pure and applied chemistry (IUPAC), “Standards methods for the analysis of oils, fats and derivatives”, In C. Paquot, & A. Hautfenne (Eds.) Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications Inc, 2001.
M. K. Dowd, “Identification of the unsaturated heptadecyl fatty acids in the seed oils of Thespesia populnea and Gossypium hirsutum”. JAOCS, 89, 2012, pp. 1599-1609.
H. C. Autino, “Temas Selectos en Aceites y Grasas” Vol. 1 e Procesamiento. In J. M. Block, & D. B. Arellano (Eds.), Desgomado, 2009, pp. 97-142.
F. Gallardo, C. Dayton, H. Autino, M. Odone, V. Imoda, V. and A. Lascano, “Desgomado enzimático de aceites vegetales. Comparación de diferentes alternativas de procesos”. Aceites & Grasas, 79, 2010, pp. 204-212.
A. P. Bimbo, “Guidelines for characterizing food-grade fish oil”, Inform, 9, 1998, pp. 473–483.
J. A. Noriega-Rodríguez, J. Ortega-García, O. Angulo-Guerrero, H. S. García, L. A. Medina-Juárez and N. Gamez-Mezac, “Oil production from sardine (Sardinops sagax caerulea) Producción de aceite a partir de sardina (Sardinops sagax caerulea), CyTA J. Food 7, 2009, pp. 173–179.
K. Clausen, “Enzymatic oil-degumming by a novel microbial phospholipase”. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 103, 2001, pp. 333-340.
B. Yang, R. Zhou, J. G. Yang, Y. H. Wang, and W. F. Wang, “Insight into the enzymatic degumming process of soybean oil”, JAOCS. 85, 2008, pp. 421-425.
M. Jahani, M. Alizadeh, M. Pirozifard, and A. Qudsevali, “Optimization of enzymatic degumming process for rice brain oil using response surface methodology”, LTW Food Sci. Technol., 41, 2008, pp. 1892-1898.
D. Lamas, G. H. Crapiste, D. T. Constenla, “Changes in quality and composition of sunflower oil during enzymatic degumming process”, LTW Food Sci. Technol., 58, 2014, pp. 71-76.
D. Lamas, D. T. Constenla, D. Raab, “Effect of degumming process on physicochemical properties of sunflower oil”, BAB Journal., 2016, pp. 138–143.
International Association of Fish Meal and Oil Manufactures (IFOMA), “Method of analysis for chemistry value of fish oil”, England 1981.
Codex Alimentarius Recommended International Code of Practice for the Storage and Transport of Edible Fats and Oils in Bulk, CAC/RCP 36 – 1987 Rome: FAO, http://www.codexalimentarius.net/download/standards/101/CXP_036e.pdd, 2011.
O. Akaranta, and A. A. Akaho, “Synergic effect of citric acid and red onion skin extract on the oxidative stability of vegetable oil”, J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage. 16 (4), 2012, pp. 345-351.
Eur. Ph. European Pharmacopoeia, “Fish oil, rich in omega-3 acids”. In: European Pharmacopoeia (7th edn). Strasbourg, France: European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines; 1912. EP 01, 2011. European Pharmacopoeia.
M. D. Guillen, and N. Cabo, “Fourier transform infrared spectra data versus peroxide and anisidine values to determine oxidative stability of edible oils”, Food Chem. 77, 2002, pp. 503-510.
A. Miyagi, H. Tani, and M. Kajima, “Reduction in Oxidation Index Value of Fish Oils Using Hydrophobic Nonporous Denser Membrane Process”. Food Sci. Technol. Res., 15 (3), 2009, pp. 245 – 248.
M. Sellami, F. B. Rebah, Y. Gargouri, N. Miled, “Lipid composition and antioxidant activity of liver oils from ray species living in Tunisian coasts”, Arabian J. Chem. 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2014.07.010.
M. Tengku, R. Tengku, and E. J. Birch, “Physicochemical characterisation and oxidative stability of refined hoki oil, unrefined hoki oil and unrefined tuna oil”, Int. J. food Sci. Technol., 48 (11), 2013, 2331–2339.
A. Massa, A. Fernandez Compas, P. Casagrande, “Determinación de la composición química y perfil de ácidos grasos de especies cartilaginosas presentes en el atlántico sudoccidental”, Informe Técnico Interno INIDEP, 70, 2011, pp. 7.
A. Massa, A. Fernandez Compas, P. Casagrande, “Caracterización bioquímica de distintos tejidos del pez angel Squatina gggeinhem”. Informe Técnico Interno INIDEP, 71, 2011, pp. 8.
A. Massa, M. Vittone, A. Fernandez Compas, P. Casagrande, “Caracterización bioquímica de distintos tejidos gatuzo Mustelus schmitti”. Informe Técnico Interno INIDEP, 39, 2014, pp, 11.
Y. Ozogul, F. Ozogul, E. Ciçek, A. Polat, E. Kuley, “Fat content and fatty acid compositions of 34 marine water fish species from the Mediterranean Sea” Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr., 60 (6), 2009, pp. 464-475.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186