Fe-Al-Pillared Clay Used for Conversion of Toluene Through Catalytic Wet Peroxide Oxidation
Petroleum Science and Engineering
Volume 2, Issue 1, June 2018, Pages: 17-24
Received: Mar. 15, 2018;
Accepted: Apr. 3, 2018;
Published: May 10, 2018
Views 912 Downloads 147
Zohra Mèçabih, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Exact Sciences, University of Djillali Liabes, Sidi Bel Abbes, Algeria
In the present paper, the wet peroxide oxidation of toluene to benzaldehyde, which is great industrially important, is studied on solid catalyst. The catalyst (Fel-Al ) pillared bentonite (Fe-Al/B) is successfully prepared by cation exchanging of purified bentonite (B) with mixed hydroxyl-(Al-Fe) pillaring solution made from hydrolysis of corresponding metal salts with OH/M3+ =2.5 (M=Al3+, Fe3+), followed by calcination at 500°C to convert hydroxyl-Al and hydroxyl-Fe into intercalated polycations. Characterization studies are performed by use of chemical composition, XRD, SEM, TEM and analysis of N2 adsorption/desorption. The basal spacing (d001) and specific surface area of samples increased from 15.3 Å and 91.57cm2/g in the B to 19.4 Å and 229.75cm2/g in the Al-Fe/B. The Fe-Al/B clay catalyst has proved to be promising in toluene oxidation with H2O2, selectively forming benzaldehyde under the working conditions. The toluene conversion and the product distribution largely depended on the catalyst and oxidant concentrations and the nature of the solvent. Higher conversion of toluene and greater selectivity for benzaldehyde is obtained with acetinitrile solvent.
Fe-Al-Pillared Clay Used for Conversion of Toluene Through Catalytic Wet Peroxide Oxidation, Petroleum Science and Engineering.
Vol. 2, No. 1,
2018, pp. 17-24.
Y. Zhang, C. Li, X. He, and B. Chen, “Simulation and optimization in the process of toluene liquid-phase catalytic oxidation”, Chin. J. chem. Eng, 16, 36-38, 2008.
C. C. Guo, Q. Liu, W. T. Wang, and H. Y. Hu, “Selective liquid phase oxidation of toluene with air”, Appl. Catal. Gen. 282, 55-59, 2005.
J. M. Thomas, R. Raja, G. Sankar, and R. G. Bell, “Molecular sieve catalysts for the selective oxidation of linear alkanes by molecular oxygen”, Nature. 398, 227-230, 1999.
M. Kantam, and P. Sreekanth, “An improved process for selective liquid-phase air oxidation of toluene”, Catal. Lett. 81, 223-231, 2002.
F. Brühne, and E. Wright, Benzaldehyd, Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 4rd ed, vol2. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 2003, pp. 223-235.
P. Bankovic, A. Milutinovic, Z. Mojovic, A. Rosic, Z. Cupic, D. Loncarevic, and D. Jovanovic,” Toluene Degradation in Water Using AlFe-Pillared”, Chen. J. Catal. 30, 14-18, 2009.
M. Kurian, and S. Sugunan, “Wet peroxide oxidation of phenol over mixed pillared montmorillonites”, Chem. Engin. J. 115, 139-146, 2006.
R. S. Nancy, R. Molina, and S. Moreno, “Development of Pillared Clays for Wet Hydrogen Peroxide Oxidation of Phenol and Its Application in the Post treatment of Coffee Wastewater”, Intern. J. Photo. 4, 1-16, 2012.
Z. Méçabih, S. Kacimi, and B. Bouchikhi, “Adsorption des matières organiques des eaux usées urbaines sur la bentonite modifiée par Fe (III), Al (III) et Cu (II) ”, Rev.scien. eau. 19, 23–31 (2006).
O. A Camargo, A. C Moniz, J. A Jorge, and J. M. A. S. Valadares, “Métodos de análise química, mineralógica e física de solo”, Boletim. Técnico. 106, 71–75, 1986.
W. H. Hendershot, H. Lalande, and M. Duquette, Ion exchange and exchangeable cation, 2rd ed, vol2. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, 1993, pp. 46-52.
A. Decarreau, Matériaux argileux: structure, propriétés et application, 2rd ed, vol1. Société français de minéralogie et de cristallographie, paris, 1993, pp. 14-28.
K. Chen, G. H. Wang, W. B. Li, D. Wan, Q. Hu, L. L. Lu,. B. Wei and Z. Z. Cheng, “Synthesis of magnetically modified Fe-Al pillared bentonite and heterogeneous Fenton-like degradation of Orange II”, J. Wuhan University of Technology-Mater, 2, 302–306, 2015.
H. Jia, S. Zhao, X. Zhou, C. Qu, D. Fan, and C. Wang, “Low-temperature pyrolysis of oily sludge: roles of Fe/Al-pillared bentonites”, Arch. Envir., Prote. 43, 82-90, 2017.
H. Muñoz, C. Blanco, A. Gil, M. Vicente, and L. Galeano, “Preparation of Al/Fe-pillared clays: Effect of the starting mineral”, Materials, 10, 1364, 2017.
Y. N. Kozlov, G. V. Nizova, and G. B. Shulpin, “Oxidations by the reagent "O2-H2O2-vanadium derivative-pyrazine-2-carboxylic acid”, J. Mol. Catal. 75, 227-247, 2005.