Determination of Geothermal Energy Sources in Masu Area Northeastern Nigeria Using Spectral Analysis of Aeromagnetic Data
International Journal of Energy and Environmental Science
Volume 3, Issue 5, September 2018, Pages: 89-98
Received: Sep. 28, 2018;
Accepted: Oct. 16, 2018;
Published: Nov. 9, 2018
Views 644 Downloads 66
Moses Akiishi, Department of Physics, Federal University of Agriculture Makurdi, Makurdi, Nigeria
Bernadette Chidomnso Isikwue, Department of Physics, Federal University of Agriculture Makurdi, Makurdi, Nigeria
Alexander Aondongu Tyovenda, Department of Physics, Federal University of Agriculture Makurdi, Makurdi, Nigeria
The incessant power outage and power rationing in Nigeria has affected the economic development, hence the need to seek for other sources of electricity generation such as geothermal energy which is environmentally friendly and renewable. The wide range of geologic formations in the north-eastern Nigeria provides an avenue for exploration of geothermal energy. Hence, this work carries out an investigation of Curie point depth, geothermal gradient as well as heat flow in Masu, which is located within Nigerian sector of Chad Basin (lat. 12°00' to 13°00' N and long. 12°30' to 14°00' E) using spectral analysis. Application of minimum curvature in gridding the total magnetic field intensity data was done using the Oasis Montaj 6.4.2 software. First order polynomial fitting was applied in Regional-residual separation. The Curie point depth obtained ranges from 12.233 to 16.184 km with an average of 13.993 km, the geothermal gradient of the area varies from 35.838 to 47.413°C /km, with an average of 41.821°C /km, while the heat flow ranges from 89 to 117.80 mWm-2, with an average of 104.551 mWm-2. The 2D contour maps reveal that the Curie point depth is lowest in the southeast and increases towards the northwest, while the geothermal gradient and heat flow on the other hand are highest in the southeast and decrease towards northwest. The high geothermal gradient and heat flow values in the area are indications that the area might be suitable for geothermal energy generation as an alternative power supply in the area and in the country at large.
Bernadette Chidomnso Isikwue,
Alexander Aondongu Tyovenda,
Determination of Geothermal Energy Sources in Masu Area Northeastern Nigeria Using Spectral Analysis of Aeromagnetic Data, International Journal of Energy and Environmental Science.
Vol. 3, No. 5,
2018, pp. 89-98.
Abdullahi, B. U, Rai, J. K., Olaitan, O. M. and Musa, Y. A. ( 2014) A Review of theCorrelation between Geology and Geothermal Energy in North-Eastern Nigeria IOSR Journal of Applied Geology and Geophysics, Vol. 2 No3 pp 74-83.
Abraham, E. M, Oband, E. G, Chukwu, C. G and Chukwu, M. O (2015). Estimating depth to the bottom of magnetic sources at Wikki Warm Spring region, northeastern Nigeria, using fractal distribution of sources approach Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, pp 1-19.
Ajana, O., Udensi. E. E., Momoh, M., Rai, J. K. and Muhammad, S. B. (2014). Spectral Depths Estimation of Subsurface Structures in Parts of Borno Basin, North eastern Nigeria, using Aeromagnetic Data Journal of Applied Geology and Geophysics. Vol2 No2 pp:55-60.
Aliyu, A. Salako, K. A. Adewumi, T. and Mohammed, A.(2018). Interpretation of High Resolution Aeromagnetic Data to Estimate the Curie Point Depth Isotherm of Parts of Middle Benue Trough and North-East, Nigeria Physical Science International Journal Vol 17 No 3.
Ali, S. and Orazulike, D. M. (2010). Well log–Derived Radiogenic Heat Production in the Sediments of the Chad Basin, North –East Nigeria, Journal of Applied Science Vol 2 pp 1-9.
Anakwuba, E. K. and Chinwuko, A. I. (2015). One Dimensional Spectral Analysis and Curie Depth Isotherm of Eastern Chad Basin, Nigeria. Journal of Natural Sciences Research, Vol5 No19, pp 14-22.
Avbovbo. A. A.; Ayoola, E. O. and Osahon, G. A. (1986). Depositional and Structural Styles in Chad Basin of Nigeria. Bulletin American Association Petroleum Geologists,. Vol 70 No 121, pp 1787-1798.
Barber, W. (1965) Pressure Water in the Chad formation of Borno and Dikwa Emirates, NE Nigeria. Bulletin Geological Survey of Nigeria. 35 pp138.
Blakely, R. J. (1988). Curie Temperature Analysis and Tectonic Implications of Aeromagnetic Data from Nevada. Journal of Geophysical Research. Vol 93No B10 pp 11817 – 11832.
Chanda, M. S, Obaj, U, Lar, A and Moumouin, A. (2007). Petroleum Geochemistry of Kuchali Continental journal of Earth Science Vol 1 pp18-24.
Eletta, B. E. and Udensi, E. E. (2012). Investigation of the Curie Depth Isotherm from the Magnetic fields of Eastern Sector of Central Nigeria. Geosciences. Vol2 No4, pp 101–106.
Frost, B. R. and Shive, P. N. (1986). Magnetic mineralogy of the lower continental crust. Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol 91 No B6, pp 6513–6521.
Hinze, W. J.; VonFrese, R. B. and Saad, A. H. (2013). Gravity and Magnetic Exploration. Cambridge University Press, 512.
Hsien- Hsiang, H, Chieh-Hung Chen, Pei-Ying, L. and Horng- Yuan, Y. (2014). Curie point depth from spectral analysis of magnetic data in Taiwan. Journal of Asian Earth Science Vol 90, pp 26- 33.
Kasidi, S. and Nur, A. (2013). Estimation of Curie Point Depth, Heat Flow and Geothermal Gradient Inferred from Aeromagnetic Data over Jalingo and Evirons North-Eastern Nigeria. International Journal of Physical Sciences. Vol3 No 2,: pp 27-39.
Kwaya, Y. M, Kurowska, E. and Arabi, A. S. (2016a). Geothermal Gradient and Heat Flow in the Nigeria Sector of the Chad Basin, Nigeria. Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering, Vol 5, pp 70-78.
Kwaya M. Y., Kurowska, E. and Arabi, A. S. (2016b). Dynamics of Geothermal Variability in the Nigerian Sector of the Chad B. Sustainable Energy Vo l4 No1, pp 28-33.
Matheis, G. (1976). Short review of the geology of Chad Basin in Nigeria, Lagos, Nigeria: Elizabethan publication company, pp289-294.
Nagata, T. (1961). Rock Magnetism, Maruzen, Tokyo. 350.
Nwankwo, C. N., Anthony S., Ekine, P., Nwasu. K, and Leonard. I. (2012). Estimation of the Heat Flow Variation in the Chad Basin Nigeria. Journal of Applied Sciences Environmental Management,. Vol 4, pp28-34.
Nwankwo, C. N. and Ekine, A. S. (2009). Geothermal Gradients in the Chad Basin, Nigeria from Bottom hole temperature Logs. International Journal of physical sciences. Vol4 No 12, pp777–783.
Nwankwo, L. I. and Shehu, A. T. (2015). Evaluation of Curie-point depths, geothermal gradients and near-surface heat flow from high-resolution aeromagnetic (HRAM) data of the entire Sokoto Basin. Journal of Volcanol Geothermal Research Vol30 No5, pp 45–55.
Nwankwo, L I, Olasehinde, P I, Akoshile, C O (2011). Heat flow anomalies from then spectral analysis of Airborne Magnetic data of Nupe Basin, Nigeria. Asian J. Earth Sci. Vol 1 No1, pp 1-6.
Obaje, N. G. (2009). Geology and Mineral Resources of Nigeria, Berlin Springer publishers, pp 1-203.
Obiora, D. N., Ossai, M. N. and Okwohi, E. (2015). A Case Study of Aeromagnetic Data Interpretations of Nsukka Area, Enugu state, Nigeria for hydrocarbon Exploration. International Journal of Physical Science. Vol 10 No17, pp 503-519.
Odebode, M. O. (2010) A handout on geology of Borno (Chad) Basin Northeastern Nigeria.
Okosun, E. A. (1995) Review of Borno Basin. Journal of mining and geology Vol 31 No2, pp: 113-172.
Okpikoro, F. E. and Olorunniwo, M. A. (2010). Seismic Sequence Architecture and Structural Analysis of North–Eastern, Nigeria Chad (Bornu) Basin, Journal of Earth Science 5(2): 1-9.
Olaleye, N. and Amoo, A. (2014). Thermodynamic based resource classification of renewable Geothermal Energy in Nigeria Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, pp 22-30.
Onwuemesi, A. G. (1997). One-Dimensional Spectral Analysis of Aeromagnetic Anomalies and Curie point Depth Isotherm in the Anambra Basin of Nigeria. Journal of Geodynamics Vol 23 No2, pp: 95-107.
Rabeh, T. (2009). Prospecting for the Ferromagnetic Mineral Accumulations Using the Magnetic Method at the Eastern Desert, Egypt. Journal of Geophysics and Engineering 6 (4): 401–411.
Spector, A., Grant, F. S., (1970). Statistical models for interpretation of aeromagnetic data. Geophysics, 35, 293–302.
Shuey, R. T.; Schellinger, D. K.; Tripp, A. C, and Alley, L. B. (1977). Curie Depth Determination from Aeromagnetic Data Spectral Analysis. Geophysics Journal of the Royal Astronomical society. Vol 50 No1, pp 73-101.
Stampolidis, A, Kane, I, Tsokas GN, Tsourlo, P (2005). Curie point depths of Albania inferred from ground total field magnetic data. Surveys in Geophysics. Vol 26, pp 461– 480.
Tanaka A, Okubo Y, Matsubayashi O (1999). Curie point depth basedon spectrum analysis of the magnetic anomaly data in East and Southeast Asia. Tectonophysics Vol 306, pp 61– 470.
Tselentis, GA (1991). An attempt to define Curie depth in Greece from Aeromagnetic and heat flow data. PAGEOPH, Vol 136 No1, pp:87-101.
Turcotte, D. L. and Schubert, G. (1982). Geodynamics: Applications of continuum physics to geological problems. New York Cambridge University Press, pp 450.