Heavy Metals Distribution in Water, Particulate and Sediment of El-Mex Bay, Alexandria, Egypt
Journal of Energy, Environmental & Chemical Engineering
Volume 1, Issue 1, December 2016, Pages: 1-12
Received: Oct. 20, 2016;
Accepted: Nov. 2, 2016;
Published: Nov. 25, 2016
Views 3365 Downloads 156
Mohamed A. Okbah, Marine Chemistry Department, National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Alexandria, Egypt
Mamdouh S. Masoud, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt
Gehan M. El Zokm, Marine Chemistry Department, National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Alexandria, Egypt
Alyaa A. Abd El-Salam, Marine Chemistry Department, National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Alexandria, Egypt
The aim of this study is to determine the distribution of the heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Pb, Mn, Zn and Cd) between dissolved and particulate form; as well as, in the sediment of El-Mex Bay. Surface and bottom water samples were collected seasonally during the period from September (summer) 2012 to April (spring) 2013. The sediment samples were collected once from all the selected stations in summer 2012. The metals content in the sediments decreased in the order of Fe > Mn >Zn > Pb > Cu > Cd. The measured heavy metal content varied greatly as follows: Fe, 1449-8625 μgg−1 with an average of 4082 ± 188 μgg−1; Mn, 165.08-865.92 μgg−1 with an average of 315.6 ± 178μgg−1; Cu, 5.67- 48.17 μgg−1 with an average of 26.04 ± 19μgg−1; Zn, 17.50- 138.75 μgg−1 with an average of 57.07 ± 130μgg−1; Pb, 7.17- 87.50μgg−1 with an average of 26.81 ± 54μgg−1; Cd, 0.08-1.50 μgg−1 with an average of 0.54 ± 1.05μgg−1. Metal Pollution Index ranged from 24.82 to 92.65 with an average 64. It can be indicated that stations II and VII suffered from metal pollutions with values of 92.56 and 87.23, The Enrichment Factor (EF) of heavy metals of El-Mex Bay sediments can be arranged as the following, EFCd >EFPb >EFCu > EFMn > EFZn. The difference in EF values due to the difference in the magnitude of input for each metal in the sediment. To evaluate water quality index, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied. According to PCA data, Station I and III could be considered as hot spots.
Mohamed A. Okbah,
Mamdouh S. Masoud,
Gehan M. El Zokm,
Alyaa A. Abd El-Salam,
Heavy Metals Distribution in Water, Particulate and Sediment of El-Mex Bay, Alexandria, Egypt, Journal of Energy, Environmental & Chemical Engineering.
Vol. 1, No. 1,
2016, pp. 1-12.
Bruland K. W. and Lohan M. C. (2003) Controls of Trace Metals in Seawater Volume 6; Published by Elsevier Ltd. (ISBN: 0-08-044341-9); pp. 23–47.
Tessier. A. and Campbell. P. (1988). Partitioning of trace metals in sediments. In: Kramer J. R, Allen H. E. (Eds.), Metal speciation: Theory, Analysis and application, Lewis publishers, Chelsea, MI, USA.
Buckley. D. E., Smith. J. N. and Winters. G. V. (1995). Accumulation of contaminant metals in marine sediments of Halifax Harbour. Nova Scotia: environmental factors and historical trends. Applied Geochemistry, 10: 175-195.
Islam. M. S. and Tanaka. M. (2004). Impacts of pollution on coastal and marine ecosystems including coastal and marine fisheries and approach for management: a review and synthesis. Marine Pollution Bulletin 48: 624-649.
Shaltout. N. A. (2008). Inorganic Carbon Cycle of Alexandria Coastal water. Ph. D. Thesis, Alexandria university, faculty of science.
Abdel-Rhman. M. Kh. (2013). Distribution of Nutrient Salts in hot spot areas at El-Mex Bay (Egyptian Mediterranean Sea) In relation to physicochemical parameters. Ms. c Thesis. Fac. Sc., Alex. Univ.
Mahamoud. Th. H., Masoud. M. S., Shaltout. N. A. (2008). Physico- chemical characteristics of different water type in El-Mex Bay, Alexandria, Egypt.
Said. M. A., El-Deek. M. S., Mahmoud. Th. H. and Shriadah. M. A.(1994). Effect of pollution on the hydrochemical characteristics of different water types in El-Max Bay area, west of Alexandria, Egypt. ActaAdriatica, 34 (1/2): 9-19.
Tayel. F. T., Fahmy. M. A. and shriadah. M. A. (1996). Studies of physicochemical characteristic of el-mex bay and new dekhela harbor of Alexandria. bull. Nat. inst. Oceanogr&fish., A. R. E., 22: 1-18.
Lores E, Pennock J. 1998. The effect of salinity on binding of Cd, Cr, Cu and Zn to dissolved organic matter, Chemosphere, 37: 861-874.
Abd-Alla. A. M. (2007). Speciation of Trace Metals in Coastal Sediments of El-MexBay South Mediterranean Sea–West of Alexandria (Egypt). Environ Monit Assess, 132:111–123.
Riley, J. P. and Taylor, D. (1968). Chelating resins for the concentration of trace elements from sea water and their analytical use in conjunction with atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Analy. Chem. Acta, 40: 479–485.
Abdullah, M. I, and Royle L. G. (1974): A study of the dissolved and particulate trace elements in the Bristol Channel. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. UK. 54: 581-597.
UNEP/IAEA (1986): Reference methods for marine pollution studies, No. 39, 6.
Folk. R. L. (1974). Petrography of sedimentary rocks. Univ. Texas, Hemphill, Austin, Tex., 182.
Gaudette. H. E. and Flight. W. R. (1974). An inexpensive titration method for the determination of organic carbon in recent sediments. Journal of sedimentary petrology. 44 (1), 249-253.
Molina. B. F. (1974). A rapid and accurate method for the analysis of calcium carbonate in small samples. J. Sed. Petrol., 44(2): 589-590.
Oregioni. B. and Aston. S. R. (1984). The determination of selected trace metals in marine sediments by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. IAEA Monaco Laboratory Internal Report. UNEP, reference methods for marine pollution studies, 38.
Tiemann. K. J., Gardea-Torresdey. J. L., Gamez. G., Dokken. K., Cano-Aguilera. I., Renner. M. W. and Furenlid. L. R. (2000). Effects of oxidation state on metal ion binding by Medicago sativa (alfalfa): Atomic and X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies with Fe(II) and Fe(III). Environ. Sci. Technol., 34(4), 693–698.
Chester, R. (1990). Marine geochemistry. Academic Press, London, 346-42.
Horsburgh. M. J., Wharton. S. J., Karavolos. M., Foster. S. J. (2002). Manganese: elemental defense for a life with oxygen. Trends in Microbiology 10(11), 496–501.
Kernen. N., Kidd. M. J., Penner-Hahn. J. E., Pakrasi. H. B. (2002). A light dependent mechanism for massive accumulation of manganese in the photosynthetic bacterium Synechocytis sp. PCC 6803. Biochemistry 41 (50), 15085–15092.
Satarug. S., Baker. J. R., Urbenjapol. S., Haswell-Elkins. M., Reilly. P. E. B., Williams. D. J. and Moore. M. R. (2003). A global perspective on cadmium pollution and toxicity in non-occupationally exposed population. Toxicol. Lett., 137, 65–83.
Kazuo. A. (2007). Concentration Level of Dissolved Cadmium and Its Variation in Surface Seawater of Urasoko Bay, Ishigaki Island. journal of Oceanography, 63: 341-347.
Bennet-Chambers. M., Davies. P and Knott. B. (1999). Cadmium in aquatic ecosystems in Western Australia: A legacy of nutrient-deficient soils. J. Environ. Manage. 57, 283.
Kavirsj. A. and Das. S., (1999). Effect of fertilization on the deposition, partitioning and bioavailability of copper, zinc and cadmium in four perennial ponds of an industrial town. Ind. J. Environ. Health, 41:6-15.
Nayak B. M., Ramakrishna. S., Jayaprakash, and Delvi M. R. (2009). Impact of heavy metals on water, fish (Cyprinus carpio) and sediments from a water tank at Tumkur, India, International Journal of Oceanography and Hydrobiology, 2:17-28.
Luoma. S. N. (1983). Bioavailability of trace metals to aquatic organisms—A review: The Science of the Total Environment, 28: 1-22.
Luoma. S. N. (1989). Can we determine the biological availability of sediment-bound trace elements?: Hydrobiologia. 176/177: 379-396.
Allen. H. E, Chen. Y, Y. Li, Huang. C. P and Sanders. P. F. (1995). Soil partition coefficients by column desorption and comparison to batch adsorption measurements. Environmental Science and Technology, 29(8): 1887-1891.
EPA. (2005). Partition coefficients for metals in surface water, soil and waste.
Abd-Alla. A. M. (2008). Trace Metal Behavior in Mediterranean-Climate Coastal Bay:El-Mex Bay, Egypt and its Coastal Environment. Global Journal of Environmental Research, 2(1): 23-29.
El Zokm. M. G, El-Gohary. S and Abd-El-Khalek. D. E. (2012). Studies of some heavy metals in water and sediment in El-Max fish farm, Egypt. World Applied Sciences Journal 18 (2): 171-180.
Bowen. H. J. M. (1979). Environmental Chemistry of the Elements. Academic Press, London.
Usero. J., Gonzales-Regalado. E. and Gracia. I. (1997). Trace metals in bivalve molluscs Ruditapes' decussatus and Ri4ditapes philippinarum from the Atlantic Coast of southern Spain Environ, Int., 23: 291-298.
Gong. Q. and Deng. J. (2008). Calculating pollution indices by heavy metals in ecological geochemistry assessment and a case study in parks of beijing. Journal of China University of Geosciences, 19( 3):230–241.
Martin. J. M and Meybek M. (1979). Elemental mass balance of material carried by major world rivers. Marine Chemistry 7: 173-206.
Zhang. L., Ye. X., Feng. H., Jing. Y., Ouyang. T., Yu. X., Liang. R., Gao. C. and Chen. W. (2007). Heavy metal contamination in western Xiamen Bay sediments and its vicinity, China. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 54: 974–982.
Ergin. M., Saydam. C., Basturk. O., Erdem. E. and Yoruk. R. (1991). Heavy metal concentrations in surface sediments from the two coastal inlets (Golden Horn Estuary and Izmit Bay) of the Northeastern Sea of Marmara. Chemical Geology 91: 269–285.
Sutherland. R. A., (2000). Bed Sediment-Associated Trace Metals in an Urban Stream, Oahu, Hawaii. Environmental Geology, 39: 611–627.
El Zokm. M. G. (2010). Speciation of heavy metals along Egyptian red sea coastal. Ph. D. thesis. Chem. Dep. Fac. Sci., Alex. Univ.
Ouyang. Y., Nkedi-Kizza. P., Wu. Q. T., Shinde. D. and Huang. C. H. (2006). Assessment of seasonal variations in surface water quality. Water Res. 40, 3800-3810.
Zhou. F., Guo. H. C., Liu. Y. (2007b). Chemo metrics data analysis of marine water quality and source identification in southern Hong Kong. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 54, 745-756.
Mil-Homens. M., Branco. V., Lopes. C., Vale. C., Abrantes. F., Boer. W.. and Vicente M. (2009). Using factor analysis to characterise historical trends of trace metal contamination in a sediment core from the tagus prodelta, water, air and soil pollution, 197: 277-287.
Bharti. N, Katyal. D. (2011). Water quality indices used for surface water vulnerability assessment. International Journal of Environmental Sciences.2(1).
Davis. J. C. (1986). Statistics and Data Analysis in Geology. John Wiley and Sons. Inc., New York.
El-Iskandarani. M., Nasr. S., Okabh. M. and Jensen. A. (2004). Principal component analysis for quality assessment of the Mediterranean costal water of Egypt. Association for the advancement of modeling and simulation Techniques in Enterprises (AMSE), 65 (2): 69-83.
Saleh. Sh. M. K. (2006). Environmental assessment of heavy metals pollution in bottom sediments from the Gulf of Aden, Yamen. Ph. D. Thesis, Institute of Graduate Studies and Research, Alex. Univ, Egypt.1500.