Effects of Area Closure on Selected Soil Physico-Chemical Properties in Hidabu Abote District, North Shewa Zone, Oromia
Journal of Energy, Environmental & Chemical Engineering
Volume 5, Issue 1, March 2020, Pages: 1-9
Received: Mar. 23, 2020; Accepted: Apr. 9, 2020; Published: Apr. 29, 2020
Views 187      Downloads 79
Endale Bedada, Fitche Agricultural Research Center, Fitche, Ethiopia
Feto Esimo, Oromia Agricultural Research Institute, Finfinne, Ethiopia
Alemayehu Muluneh, Biosystem and Environmental Engineering Department, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia
Article Tools
Follow on us
This study was conducted at sire moresse area closure, Hidabu abote district, North shewa zone, Oromia Regional State to evaluate the effects of area closure on selected physic-chemical properties of soils. In this study area closure sites were compared with adjacent open grazing land in similar landscape positions for soil fertility buildup. Soil samples were collected from the experimental fields using Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with factorial arrangement to evaluate selected soil physico- chemical properties. Data analyses were carried out using analysis of variance appropriate to general linear model (GLM). A total of 36 undisturbed and 36 disturbed soil samples were collected from both closed and open grazing land at 10 and 20 cm sampling depths along each slope position with three replication. The result of the study indicated that the mean value of most of soil physical and chemical properties were higher at area closure than adjacent open grazing land and also higher at bottom slope position than middle and upper slope position. The mean of Air filled porosity and Bulk density were lower at both area closure management practices and bottom slope position. Bulk density, Total Porosity, volumetric soil moisture content and saturated hydraulic conductivity at 20 cm sampling depth were shows significantly different with respect to management practices. Similarly, soil chemical properties such as EC, OC, AvP and CEC were shows significantly different with respect to management practices. Soil structure quality, Texture, BD, TP, SMC, EC and TN were shows significantly different under the three slope position. The overall output from the research showed that physical and chemical properties of soil in area closure areas are improving. Area closures act as important sinks of water and reduce soil erosion. From this study it was possible to conclude that area closure improves soil physical and chemical properties.
Area Closures, Open Grazing Land, Soil Physical Properties, Soil Chemical Properties
To cite this article
Endale Bedada, Feto Esimo, Alemayehu Muluneh, Effects of Area Closure on Selected Soil Physico-Chemical Properties in Hidabu Abote District, North Shewa Zone, Oromia, Journal of Energy, Environmental & Chemical Engineering. Vol. 5, No. 1, 2020, pp. 1-9. doi: 10.11648/j.jeece.20200501.11
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abiy Tsetargachew, 2008. Area closure as a strategy for land management: a case study at Kelala Dalacha enclosure in the central rift valley of Ethiopia: MSc. thesis, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa.
Aerts, R., Mitiku Haile, Muys, B., Deckers, J., Hermy, M. and Moeyersons, J., 2001. Forest rehabilitation and water conservation in the Tigray highlands, northern Ethiopia. European tropical forestry research network, 33: 29-31.
AHuja, L. R., J. W. Naney, and D. R. Nielsen. 1984. Scaling soil water properties and infiltration modeling. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 48: 970–973.
Azene Bekele. 1997. A participatory agro-forestry approach for soil and water conservation in Ethiopia. PhD Dissertation, Wageningen Agricultural University, the Netherlands. 229p.
Bendz, M., 1986. Hill side closures in Welo: Ethiopian red cross society mission report. Vaxjo, Sweden.
Betru Nedessa, Jawad Ali and Nyborg I., 2005. Exploring ecological and socio- economic issues for the improvement of area enclosure management: a case study from Ethiopia. DCG report, 38: 3-30.
Bewket W, Stroosnijder L (2003) Effects of agro ecological land use succession on soil properties in the Chemoga watershed, Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia. Geoderma 111: 85-98.
Brady, N. C. and R. Weil, 2002. The nature and properties of soils. 13 thedition. Pearson Education, Inc., New Jersey, 960p.
Bezdicek, D. F., Beaver, T., Granatstein, D. (2003). Subsoil ridge tillage and lime effects on soil microbial activity, soil pH, erosion, and wheat and pea yield in the Pacific Northwest, USA, Soil & Tillage Research, 74, 55-63.
Capowiez Y, Dittbrenner N, Rault M, Triebskorn R, Hedde M, Mazzia C (2010) Earthworm cast production as a new behavioural biomarker for toxicity testing. Environ Pollut 158: 388–393.
Celik I (2005) Land use effects on organic matter and physical properties of soil in a southern Mediterranean highland of Turkey. Soil Tillage Res 83: 270-277.
Chapman, H. D. (1965). Cation exchange capacity. In: Black, C. A., Ensminger, L. E. and Clark, F. E (ed). methods of soil analysis. agronomy. agro., inc., Madison, Wisconsin. 9: 891- 901.
Chen C, Xu Z (2010) Forest ecosystem responses to environmental changes: the key regulatory role of biogeochemical cycling. J Soil Sediment 10: 210–214.
Descheemaeker, K., Nyssen, J., Rossi, J., Poesen, J., Mitiku Haile, Raes, D., Muys, B., Moeyersons, J., Deckers, J., 2005. Sediment deposition and pedogenesis in exclosures in the Tigray highlands, Ethiopia. Geoderma, 32: 291-314.
Descheemaeker, K. (2006). Pedological and hydrological effects of vegetation restoration in exclosures established on degraded hillslopes in the highlands of Northern Ethiopia. PhD thesis. K. U. Leuven. 350p.
Dexter, A. R. 1991. Physical soil mechanical properties as influenced by exchangeable catios, 43, 41-63.
Drewry, J. J. 2006. Natural recovery of soil physical properties from treading damage of pastoral soils in New Zealand and Australia: a review. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 114: 159-169.
Dulo H., Feto E., Fisiha G., 2017. Effects of soil bund on soil physical and chemical properties in Arsi Negelle woreda, Ethiopia. Vol-11, pp. 509-516.
Emiru Birhane, 2002. Actual and potential contributions of enclosures to enhance biodiversity in drylands of eastern tigray, with particular emphasis on woody plants.
FAO (2004). Methodological framework for land degradation assessment in dry-lands.
G. Girmay, B. R. Singh, H. Mitiku, T. Borresen, and R. Lal, “Carbon stocks in Ethiopian soils in relation to land use and soil management,” Land Degradation and Development, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 351–367, 2008.
Girmay, G., B. R. Singh, J. Nyssen and T. Borrosen, 2009. Runoff and sediment-associated nutrient losses under different land uses in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. J. Hydrol., 376: 70-80.
Hadda, M. S. and Sur, H. S. 1987. Effect of land modifying measures on erosion, nutrient, water storage and yield of pearl millet fodder. J. Indian Soc. 35: 480-486.
Hailu, T., L. Negash and M. Olsson, (2001). Millettiaferruginea from South Ethiopia: Impact on Soil fertility and Growth of Maize. Ethiop. J. Agro-forestry system, 46: 9-15.
Houghton RA, Hacker JI, Lawrence KT (2000) The U.S carbon budget: contributions from land use change. Soil Sci 285: 574–578.
Jones, J. B., 2003. Agronomic Handbook: Management of Crops, Soils, and Their Fertility. CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 482p.
Kevin ZM, Nashon KRM, Dickson MN, Moses MN, Wellington NE, William MM, Agnes WMO (2011) Different land use types in the semi-arid rangelands of Kenya influence soil properties. University of Nairobi, Uganda. J Soil Sci Environ Manag 2 (11): 370–374.
Klute, A. and Dirksen, C. 1986. Hydraulic Conductivity and Diffusivity. Part 1. In: "Methods of Soil Analysis", (Ed.): Klute, A. 2 nd Edition, Agronomy Monograph, Vol. 9., American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI, PP. 687-734.
Lal, R. 2004. Carbon sequestration in dryland ecosystems. Environmental Management, 33, 528-544.
Liu X, Herbert SJ, Hashemi AM, Zhang X, Ding G (2006) Effects of agricultural management on soil organic matter and carbon transformation. Soil Environ 53: 531–543.
Margesin, R., Schinner, F. Manual of Soil Analysis- Monitoring and Assessing Soil Bioremediation. Springer- Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, Innsbruck, Austria, 2005. Department, Finfinne, p 75.
Marsili, A (1998). Changes of some physical properties of a clay soil following the passage of rubber and metal tracked tractors. Soil Till. Res. 49, 185–199.
Mekuria Argaw (2005). Forest conversion, soil degradation, farmers perception nexus: Implications for sustainable land use in the southwest of Ethiopia. PhD thesis. Cuvillier Verlag Gˆttingen. 169p.
Mekuria W, Veldkamp E (2005) Impacts of land use changes on soil nutrients and erosion in Tigray, proceeding on International Agricultural Research fo Development, Ethiopia, pp 11-13.
Mekuria Wolde, 2011. “Exclosure land management for restoration of the soils in degraded communal grazing lands in northern highlands of Ethiopia,” Land Degradation and Development.
Mekuria Wolde, 2013. “Conversion of communal grazing lands into exclosures restored soil properties in the semi-arid lowlands of Northern Ethiopia,” Arid Land Research and Management, vol., 27, pp. 153–166.
Mekuria W, Langan S, Noble A, Johnston R (2014) Soil Organic Carbon and Nutrient Contents are not influenced by Exclosures established in com- munal grazing land in Nile basin, Northern Ethiopia. International Confer- ence on Advances in Agricultural, Biological & Environmental Sciences (AABES-2014) Oct 15-16, 2014 Dubai (UAE).
Mengistu, T., Teketay, D., Hulten, H., Yemshaw, Y., 2005. The role of enclosures in the recovery of woody vegetation in degraded dryland hillsides of central and northern Ethiopia. J. Arid Environ. 60, 265–280.
MoARD (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development) (2005) Guide line for integrated watershed management. MoARD, Addis Ababa.
Mitiku Haile, Kindeya Gebrehiwot, 2001. Local initiatives for planning sustainable natural resources management in Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Ethiopian journal of natural resources, 3: 303-326.
Nyssen J., J. Poesen, J. Moeyerson, M. Haile, and J. Deckers, 2008. “Dynamics of soil erosion rates and controlling factors in the Northern Ethiopian highlands-towards a sediment budget”. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, vol. 33: 695-711.
Okalebo, J. R., Gathua, K. W., & Woomer, P. L. (2002). Laboratory methods of plant and soil analysis: a working manual. Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility Programme, Nairobi.
OPEDB (2000) Physical and socio-economic profiles of 180 districts of Oromia Physical Planning.
Quraishi S., Alam, S. M and Sinha, 1977. Study of the Effect of different soil conservation measures in the up land of chotanagpur on physic-chemical properties of soil, J. Soil and Water Conservation Ind. Vol, 27 Nos, 124: pp. 33-36.
Rhoades JD (1996). Electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids. In: Sparks D. L. (ed.): Methods of Soil Analysis. Chemical methods. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Madison, pp. 417-437.
Sakar, & Haldar (2005). Physical and chemical method in soil analysis: Fundamental concepts of analytical chemistry and instrumental techniques. New Delhi: New Age International (P) Ltd. Publisher.
Sandor JA, Gersper PL, Hawley JW (1986) Soils at prehistoric agricultural ter- racing sites: site placement soil morphology and classification, in New Mexico. Soil Sci Soc Am J 50: 166–173.
Shafiq, M., Hassan, A., Ahmad, S., 1994. Soil physical properties as influenced by induced compaction under laboratory and field conditions. Soil Till. Res, 29, 13–22.
Smeek, N. E. 2003. P hosphorus: An indicator of pedogenic weathering P. 199-206. In: Berhane F iseha and sahlemedihn Sertsu (Eds.) Assessment of the different phosphorus forms in some Agricultural soils of Ethiopia. Ethiopia Journal Natural Resources. 5 (2): 193-213.
Soares JLN, Espindola CR, Pereira WLM (2005) Physical properties of soils under soil acidity effects on nutrient use efficiency in exotic maize genotypes. J Plant Soil Sci 192: 9–13.
Tefera Mengistu, 2001. The role of enclosures in the recovery of woody vegetation in degraded dry land hillsides of central and northern Ethiopia. MSc. thesis, Swedish university of Agricultural sciences with WGCF in Ethiopia Swedish.
Tefera, M., T. Demel, H. Hulten and Y. Yemshaw, 2005. The role of communities in closed area management in Ethiopia. Mount. Res. Dev., 25: 44-50.
Vancampenhout, k,. Nyssen, J., Desta, G., Deckers, J., Poesen, J., Mitiku, H. and Moeyersons, J. 2005. S tone bunds for soil conservation in the northern Ethiopian highlands: Impacts on soil fertility and crop yield. Soil and T illage Research, 90, 1-15.
Van Reeuwijk L (2002) Procedures for soil analysis, 6th edn, Technical paper 9. Wageningen, the Netherlands.
Wei L, Ha-Zhou H, Zhi- Nan Z, Gao-Lin W (2011) Effects of grazing on the soil properties and C and N storage in relation to biomass allocation in an alpine meadow. J Soil Sci Plant Nutr 11 (4): 27–39.
Wolde Mekuriaand, Edzo V., 2005. Impacts of Land Use Changes on Soil Nutrients and Erosion in Tigray, Ethiopia. Proceedings on International Agricultural Research for Development. October 11-13, 2005, Stuttgart-Hohenheim.
Worku Hailu, Awdenegest Moges, Fantaw Yimer, 2012. The Effects of ‘Fanya juu’ Soil Conservation Structure on Selected Soil Physical & Chemical Properties: the Case of Goromti Watershed, Western Ethiopia Resources and Environment 2 (4): 132-140.
Zhang, S., Fan, W., Li, Y., Yi, Y. (2017). The influence of changes in land use and landscape patterns on soil erosion in a watershed. Science of the Total Environment, 574, 34-45.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186