The Extent to Which Servant-Leadership Philosophy Relates to Public Leadership Code of Ethics and Other Established Ideals for Public Leaders in Tanzania
Journal of Public Policy and Administration
Volume 3, Issue 1, March 2019, Pages: 8-18
Received: Jan. 29, 2019; Accepted: Mar. 14, 2019; Published: Apr. 10, 2019
Views 70      Downloads 26
Saneslaus Boniface Chandaruba, Department of Political Science and Public Administration, The Open University of Tanzania (OUT), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Article Tools
Follow on us
The main objective of this research paper was to examine the extent to which Servant Leadership Philosophy (SLP) relates to the Public Leadership Code of Ethics Act (PLCEA) of 1995 and other established ideals for public leaders in Tanzania. A total of 278 respondents: 109 Members of the Parliament (MPs), 90 Respondents from General Public (RGPs) and 79 key informants selected from different constituencies and localities across the country using a non-probability approach of snowball sampling were involved. Both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection and analysis were employed. The primary and secondary data were collected through questionnaires, interviews, observations and documentary review. The key research findings revealed that that SLP relates a little bit to PLCEA and other established ideals for public leaders in Tanzania for they both have ethical characteristics intending to set controls over public leaders. A number of difference were established during the study to justify why they were a little bit related. The major difference based on the premises that the philosophy of servant leadership seems to embody socialistic and spiritual characteristics with a major focus on elevating followers to the same status of the leader while PLCEA and other established ideals are mainly based on a legal compliance approach. The other established differences basically focused on personal qualities of a leader in each category. Thus, the study recommends, among other things, enhancing PLCEA and other established ideals for public leaders by adopting the principles of SLP; training public leaders on SLP and including SLP in school curricula topics with a view of grooming patriotic and ethical leaders of the next generation.
Servant-leadership, Public Leadership, Tanzania, Political Leadership
To cite this article
Saneslaus Boniface Chandaruba, The Extent to Which Servant-Leadership Philosophy Relates to Public Leadership Code of Ethics and Other Established Ideals for Public Leaders in Tanzania, Journal of Public Policy and Administration. Vol. 3, No. 1, 2019, pp. 8-18. doi: 10.11648/j.jppa.20190301.12
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Northouse, P. G. (2013). Leadership: Theory and practice. 6th Ed. Singapore: Sage Publications, Inc.
Greenleaf, R. K. (2002). Servant-leadership: A journey into the nature of legitimate power and greatness. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press.
McGee-Cooper, A. and Trammell, D. (2013). The Essentials of Servant Leadership: Principles in Practice. Dallas: Texas.
Weinstein, R. B. (2013). Servant leadership and public administration: Solving the public sector financial problems through service. Journal of Management Policy Practices. 14, 84–92.
Jennifer, M. (2012). Why should I Vote?: Democracy at a secondary level. MSM Productions Ltd.
Gasarasi, C. (2004).“The General Environment in which the Members of Parliament Work” In Mukandala, R. S. et. al (ed). People’s Representatives: Theory and Practice of Parliamentary Democracy in Tanzania. Fountain Publishers Ltd. Kampala.
Liviga, A. (2004).“The Role of Members of Parliament as Representatitives of the People”. In Mukandala, R. S. et al (ed). People’s Representatives: Theory and Practice of Parliamentary Democracy in Tanzania. Fountain Publishers Ltd. Kampala.
URT. (1995). The Public Leadership Code of Ethics Act No.13 of 1995. Dar es Salaam: Government Printer.
Adamson, K. A. (2012). The Ecology of Leadership: Examining the Relational Dynamics of Dyads. School of Global Leadership and Entrepreneurship Regent University.
Mole, G. (2004) ‘Can Leadership Be Taught?’, in Storey, J. (2004) Leadership in Organizations: Current Issues and Key Trends. New York: Routledge, pp. 125-137.
Winkler, J. (2010). Contemporary leadership theories: Enhancing the understanding of the complexity, subjectivity and dynamic of leadership. London: Springer.
Van Wart, M. (2012). Leadership in public organisations: An introduction. 2nd Ed. Florida: M. E Sharp Inc.
Bass, B. M. and Stogdill, R. M. (1990). Handbook of Leadership Theory, Research and Managerial Applications. New York: Simon and Schuster Publishing.
Oxford English Dictionary. (1971). Oxford University Press.
Sendjaya, S. and Cooper, B. (2011). Servant leadership behaviour scale: A hierarchical model and test of construct validity. Eur. J. Work Organ. Psychol. 20, 416–436.
The New International Version Bible. (1986). Concordia Self-Study Bible. St. Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing.
Ruona, W. and Lynham, S. (2004). Towards a philosophical framework for thought and practice. Human Resource Development International, 7(2), 151-164.
Savage-Austin, A. R. and Honeycutt, A., (2011). Servant leadership: A phenomenological study of practices, experiences, organizational effectiveness, and barriers. Journal of Business and Economics Research (JBER), 9(1).
Jaiswal, N. K., Dhar, R. L. and Dhar, R. L. (2017). The influence of servant leadership, trust in leader and thriving on employee creativity. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 38(1), pp.2-21.
Greenleaf, R. K., (2002). Servant leadership: A journey into the nature of legitimate power and greatness. Paulist Press.
Spears, L. C. (2004). Practicing servant leadership. Leader to Leader, 34(1) 7-11.
Carroll, B. C. and Patterson, K. (2014). Servant leadership: A cross cultural study between India and the United States. Servant Leadership: Theory and Practice, 1(1), pp.16-45.
Cooper, S. S. (2010). Servant Leadership Behaviour Scale: A hierarchical model and test of. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology.
Laub, J. (2004). Defining Servant Leadership: A Recommended Typology for Servant Leadership Studies. Proceedings of the 2004 Servant Leadership Research Roundtable.
Spears, L., ed. (2002). Focus on leadership: servant-leadership for the 21st century. New York: John Wiley and Sons Inc.
Nyerere, J. K. (1968). Freedom and Socialism. Oxford University Press: Tanzania.
Nyerere, J. K. (1995). Our Leadership and the Destiny of Tanzania. African Publishing Group: Harare.
Othuman, H. (ed), (2000). Reflections on Leadership in Africa Forty Years after Independence. University of Dar es Salaam and VUB University press: Belgium.
Chachage, S. L. (2000). University of Dar es Salaam Newsletter 1999/2000. University of Dar es Salaam Press: Tanzania.
Haussler, P. (2009). Leadership for Democratic Development in Tanzania: The Perspective of Mwalimu Julius K. Nyerere During the First Decade of Independence: Dar es Salaam.
United Nations (2013). World Bank Report. Retrieved from: on 20.05.2015.
Tenga, R. W. (2010). The Legal Framework for the Regulation of Public Ethics in Tanzania: A Paper Presented to the Workshop for Members of Parliament of the United Republic of Tanzania Organized by The Ethics Secretariat: April, 27.
The Citizen News Paper, (2013). Leadership Vacuum Hurts the Nation: Elders: Saturday, July, 27: P.4.
Ngowi, H. P. (2007). Economic Development and Change in Tanzania since Independence: The Political Leadership Factor. A Paper Presented at 29th AAPAM Annual Roundtable Conference: Mbabane, Swaziland.
The Citizen News Paper, (2015). Kikwete: No Development without Ethical Public Leaders: Tuesday, April, 14: P.3.
Nassor, S. H. (2007). Developing the Tanzania Public Service Leadership Competency Framework. A Paper Presented at Leadership, Learning, Institutes and Public Service Conference: Accra, Ghana.
Kothari, C. R. (2004). Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques, 2nd Edition. India.
Bryman A (ed.). 2011. Research Methods in the Study of Leadership. Sage: London.
Creswell, J. W. (2009). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods Aproaches: Sage Publications. London.
Sekaran, U. (2003). Research Methods for Business, A Skill Building Approach. 4th Edition, New Jersey: Haboken Publishers.
Awino, Z. B. (2007). The Effect of Selected Variables on Corporate Performance: A Survey of Supply Chain Management in Large Private Manufacturing Firms in Kenya. Unpublished Thesis report, University of Nairobi.
Abok, A. M. (2013). Factors Affecting Effective Implementation of Strategic Plans in Non-Governmental Organizations in Kenya, JKUAT-Nairobi: unpublished report.
Mugenda, O. M., and Mugenda, A. G. (2003). Research Methods: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches. Nairobi: Acts Press.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186