Fermented foods are among the first processed food products consumed since the development of human civilizations. Food fermentation processes can be categorized by the primary metabolites and microorganisms involved. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a large group of closely related bacteria that have similar properties such as lactic acid production, which is an end product of the fermentation. Biotechnology is the use of living systems and organisms to develop or make useful products, or any technological applications that uses biological systems, living organisms or derivatives, to make or modify products or processes for specific use. Depending on the tools and applications, it often overlaps with the fields of bioengineering and biomedical engineering. Some of the applications were identified in this paper to include biotechnology in food fermentation to enhance properties such as the taste, aroma, shelf-life, texture and nutritional value of food. When used regularly, LAB fermented foods boost the immune system and strengthen the body in the fight against pathogenic bacterial infections, bacteriocins produced by LAB may become a potential drug candidate for replacing antibiotics in order to treat multiple drugs resistance pathogens in the future. The modern extension of food/feed fermentation technology consists of processes designed to obtain particular compounds using microbial metabolism as the chemical machinery. Thus, LAB fermentation is not only of a major economic importance, and the starting food materials, but it also promotes human health and increase food/feed production in the world.
A Review on Food Fermentation and the Biotechnology of Lactic Acid Bacteria, World Journal of Food Science and Technology.
Vol. 2, No. 1,
2018, pp. 19-24.
Maria, LM., Dustin, H., Sylvie B., Christopher. J C., Paul. D C., Benoit, F., Michael G., RemcoK., Gonca, P., Anne. P., Eddy. J. and Robert Hutkins. Health benefits of fermented foods: microbiota and beyond.Current Opinion in Biotechnology. 2017; 44:94–102.
Hayek, S.A. and Ibrahim, S.A. Current Limitations and Challenges with Lactic Acid Bacteria: A Review. Foodand Nutrition Sciences. 2013;4: 73-87.
Balarabe, Musa Maryam, Mohammed Sani, Sambo Datsugwai, and Idris Shehu. The Role of Biotechnology in Food Production and Processing. Industrial Engineering. 2017; 1(1): 24-35.
Elena Bartkiene, Vita KrungleviciuteandVadimsBartkevics. Possible Uses of Lactic Acid Bacteria for Food and Feed Production. Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Lithuania Menireview. 2017; 4:4.
Blandino, A., Al-Aseeri, ME., Pandiella. SS., Cantero, D. and Webb, C. Cereal-based fermented foods and beverages. FoodResearch International. 2003;36(6):527-543.
Mokoena, MP., Chelule, PK. and Gqaleni,N. Reduction of Fumonisin B1 and Zearalenone by Lactic Acid Bacteria in FermentedMaize Meal. Journal of Food Protection. 2005; 68:2095-2099.
Santos, F., Wegkamp, A., de Vos, WM., Smid, EJ. and Hugenholtz, J. High-Level Folate Production in Fermented Foods by the B12Producer Lactobacillus reuteri JCM1112. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2008; 74 (10):3291-3294.
Ananou, S., Maqueda, M., Martínez-Bueno, M. and Valdivia, E. Biopreservation, an ecological approach to improve the safety andshelf-life of foods. FORMATEX, 2007.
Schnürer, J. and Magnusson, J. Antifungal lactic acid bacteria as biopreservatives. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 2005;16(1-3):70-78.
Chelule, PK., Mbongwa, HP., Carries, S. and Gqaleni, N. Lactic acid fermentation improves the quality of a mahewu, a traditional South African maize-based porridge. Food Chemistry.2010;122 (3):656-661.
Guandalini, S. Probiotic for children: Use in diarrhea. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology. 2006; 40(3):244-248.
Sauer, M., Porro, D., Mattanovich, D. and Branduardi, P. Microbial production of organic acids: expanding the markets. Trends in Biotechnology. 2008;26(2):100-108.
Saithong, P., Panthavee, W., Boonyaratanakornkit, M. and Sikkhamondhol, C. Use of astarter culture of lactic acid bacteria in plaa-som, a Thai fermented fish. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering. 2010; 110: 553-557.
Muhialdin, B. J., Hassan, Z. and Sadon, S. K. Antifungal Activity of Lactobacillus fermentumTe007, PediococcuspentosaceusTe010, Lactobacillus pentosusG004 and L.paracasi D5 on Selected Foods. Journal of Food Science. 2011; 76: 493-499.
Capozzi, V. Biotechnology and Pasta-Making: Lactic Acid Bacteria as a New Driver of Innovation, 2012.
Matunga mumbia. Application of microorganisms in f food biotechnology. Indian journal of biotechnology. 2003; 2: 382-386.
Briggiler-Marcó, M., Capra, ML., Quiberoni, A., Vinderola, G., Reinheimer, J.A., &Hynes, E. Nonstarter Lactobacillus strains as adjunct cultures for cheese making: in vitrocharacterization and performance in two model cheeses. J Dairy Sci. 2007; 90: 4532-4542.
Bernardeau, M., Vernoux, J. P., Henri-Dubernet, S., Guéguen, M. (2008). Safety assessmentof dairy microorganisms: The Lactobacillus genus.Int J Food Microbiol. 2008; 126: 278–285.
Donkor, O. N., Henriksson, A., Singh, T. K., Vasiljevic, T. and Shah, N. P. ACE-inhibitory activity of probiotic yoghurt. International dairy journal. 2007; 17: 1321-1331.
Dalia, C., Grazina, J., AlgimantasP,andElena B. Antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria against pathogenic and spoilage microorganism isolated from food and their control in wheat bread. Food control. 2013; 31(2): 539-545.
Elena, B., Vadims, B., Iveta P., Vita, K. and Sigrid, M. The Contribution of P.acidilactici, L. plantarum, and L. curvatus starters and L- (+)-lactic acid to the acrylamide content and quality parameters of mixed rye- Wheat bread. LWT-Food science and technology, 2017.
Elena, B., Idan, J, Grazina, J., Daiva, V. and Iveta, P. Study on the reduction of acrylamide in mixed rye bread by fermentation with bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances producing lactic acid bacteria in combination with Aspergillus niger glucoamylase. Food control. 2013; 30(1): 35-40.
Vytaute, S., Elena, B., Vadims, B., Janis, R. and Daiva, Z. (2016) Amino acids profile and antioxidant activity of different Lupinusangustifolius seeds after solid state and submerged fermentations. J food scitechnol. 2016; 53(12): 4141-4148.
Elena B, Ida J, Grazina J, Daiva V. and Iveta P. Effect of fermented Helianthus tuberosus L. tubers on acrylamide formation and quality properties of wheat bread. LWT - Food Science and Technology. 2011; 54(2): 414-420.
Vittorio Capozzi,pasquole,Mariagiovanna Fragasso, Pasquele Deuita, Daniela fiocco and Givseppe Fiocco and Givseppe Spana. Biotechnology and pasta-making: Lactic acid bacteria as a new driver of innovation. Mini review article, 2012.
Vittorio Capozzi,pasquole,Mariagiovanna Fragasso, Pasquele Deuita, Daniela fiocco and Givseppe Fiocco and Givseppe Spana. Biotechnological Production of Vitamin B2-Enriched Bread and Pasta. Agric. Food Chem. 2011; 59 (14): 8013–8020.
Erika, M., Elena, B., Vita, K., Daivab, Z., Grazina, J. Effect of natural marinade based on lactic acid bacteria on pork meat quality parameters and biogenic amine contents. LWT- Food science and technology. 2016; 69: 319-326.
Elena, B., Grazina, J., Daiva, Z., Pranas, V., Dalia, U. The Use of tomato powder fermented with pediococcuspentosaceus and lactobacillus sakei for the ready-to-cook minced meat quality improvement. Food TechnolBiotechnol. 2015; 53(2): 163-170.
Gerez, C. L., Torino, M. I., Rollan, G. and Font de Valdez, G. Prevention of breadmould spoilage by using lactic acid bacteria with antifungal properties. Food Control. 2009; 20:144-148.
Muhialdin, B. J., Hassan, Z. Sadon, S. K. NurAqilah, Z. and AZFAR, A. A. Effect ofpH and Heat Treatment on Antifungal Activity of Lactobacillus fermentumTe007, Lactobacillus pentosusG004 and PediococcuspentosaceusTe010. Innovative Romanian FoodBiotechnology. 2011; 8: 41-53.
Elena, B., Vita, K., Ramunas, A., Jone, K., Audrius, K. Antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria multiplied in an alternative substrate and their influence on physiological parameters of new-born calves. Veterinárnímedicína. 2016; 61(12): 653-662.
Vita, K., Rasa, Z., Ingrida, M., Jone, K., Rolandas, S. Applicability of Pediococcus strains for fermentation of cereal bran and its influence on the milk yield of dairy cattle. Zemdirbyste Agriculture. 2017; 104(1): 63-70.
Salminen, S. Expert consensus document: The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics consensus statement on the scope and appropriate use of the term probiotic. Nat Rev GastroenterolHepatol. 2014; 11:506-514.
Nagendra Prasad, MN., Sanjay, KR., ShravyaKhatokar, M., Vismaya, MN., NanjundaSwamy, S. (2011). Health Benefits of Rice Bran - A Review. J Nutr Food Sci. 2011; 1:108.
Narwal, A. (2011). Probiotics in Dentistry – A Review. J Nutr Food Sci. 2011;1: 1.