Physical and Chemical Quality Appraisal of Locally Made Yoghurt Marketed in Some Regions of Cameroon
World Journal of Food Science and Technology
Volume 1, Issue 2, September 2017, Pages: 84-92
Received: May 4, 2017; Accepted: Jul. 18, 2017; Published: Aug. 11, 2017
Views 1486      Downloads 125
Authors
Lamye Glory Moh, Department of Biochemistry, University of Dschang, Dschang, Cameroon
Suffo Kamela Arnaud Landry, Department of Biochemistry, University of Dschang, Dschang, Cameroon
Pamo Tedonkeng Etienne, Department of Animal Production, University of Dschang, Dschang, Cameroon
Kuiate Jules-Roger, Department of Biochemistry, University of Dschang, Dschang, Cameroon
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
This work sought to evaluate the physical and chemical qualities of locally made yoghurts sold in three areas of Cameroon: Bamenda; Bafoussam and Dschang. Yoghurt samples were collected from 6, 4 and 3 producers respectively in these regions, with 3 different commercial brands. All yoghurt samples were analyzed for chemical properties (total solids (%), crude proteins (%DM), crude ash (%DM), crude fat (%DM), SNF (%DM), lactose (%DM), titratable acidity (%) and pH) and mineral composition (Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus, Sodium, Iron, Zinc, Copper, Sulphur and Manganese). The result of the study showed that the physico-chemical properties and mineral compositions of the locally made yoghurts were different within and among the regions. Based on the physico-chemical composition, samples from Bamenda had the highest DM, ash, crude lipid, crude proteins and titratable acidity, making them to be the best among the locally made yoghurts, better than the branded types. This was followed by samples from Bafoussam, with those from Dschang being the least in most cases. Concerning the mineral contents, samples from Bamenda were high in phosphorus, zinc, iron, and magnesium, while those from Dschang were high in sodium, potassium and calcium. Generally, the mineral contents in all the places were significantly lower than those of the commercial brands. For the commercial brands, CC was high in Phosphorus, zinc, and magnesium, BB was high in iron and calcium while AA was high in potassium. Thus, total mineral content showed wide intervals of variation, with the branded yoghurts (commercial brands) better than the locally made varieties. However, samples from Bamenda and Dschang were better in terms of minerals than those from Bafoussam. These results show that, there is either no fixed standard of yoghurt production in Cameroon or it is not respected since a variation was equally observed among the branded samples.
Keywords
Locally Made Yoghurt, Commercial Yoghurt, Physico-chemical Properties, Cameroon
To cite this article
Lamye Glory Moh, Suffo Kamela Arnaud Landry, Pamo Tedonkeng Etienne, Kuiate Jules-Roger, Physical and Chemical Quality Appraisal of Locally Made Yoghurt Marketed in Some Regions of Cameroon, World Journal of Food Science and Technology. Vol. 1, No. 2, 2017, pp. 84-92. doi: 10.11648/j.wjfst.20170102.18
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
T. B. Thapa, “Small - scale milk processing technologies,” Report of the FAOE-mail conference on small-scale milk collection and processing in developing countries 29 May -28 July 2000.
[2]
Z. Tarakci, and K. Erdogan, “Physical, chemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of some fruit-flavored yogurt,” Van Veterinary Journal 2003, 14: 10-14.
[3]
G. Zehra, and W. P. Young, “Nutritional value of strained yoghurt produced by traditional method,” Ege University, Turkey 2011, 59: 41-43.
[4]
A. Y. Tamime, and R. K. Robinson, Yoghurt: science and technology, 2nd ed, Florida: CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1999, pp. 619.
[5]
A. Y. Tamime, and H. C. Deeth, “Yoghurt: technology and biochemistry,” Journal of Food Protection 1980, 43: 939-977.
[6]
R. Ebenezer, and P. H. D. Vedamuth, “Yoghurt story - past, present and future. Part 1,” Dairy, Food and Environmental Sanitation 1991, 11(4): 202-203.
[7]
J. D. Coïsson, F. Travaglia, G. Piana, M. Capasso, and M. Arlorio, “Euterpeoleracea juice as a functional pigment for yogurt,” Food Research International 2005, 38: 893-897.
[8]
L. C. Durga, D. Sharda, and M. P. Sastry, “Effect of storage conditions on keeping quality, riboflavin and niacin of plain and fruit yoghurt,” Indian Journal of Dairy Science 1986, 39(4): 404-409.
[9]
S. Younus, M. Tariq, and A. Tariq, “Quality Evaluation of Market Yoghurt /Dahi,” Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 2002, 1(5): 226-230.
[10]
A. Flynn, and K. Cashman, ”Nutritional aspects of minerals in bovine and human milks,” in Advanced dairy chemistry, Vol. 3, P. F. Fox, Ed. London: Chapman and Hall, 1997, pp. 257-302.
[11]
H. A. A. Musa, “The effect of additives on composition and sensory characteristics of yoghurt,” Khartoum, Sudan: University of Khartoum, MSc thesis, 1997.
[12]
P. Uraltas, and B. Nazli, “Hygienic quality of fruit yoghurts sold in the markets of Istanbul,”Journal of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Istanbul University 1998, 24: 213-222.
[13]
S. Agaoglu, E. Ocak, and Z. Mengel, “Astudy on the microbiological chemical, physical and sensorial characteristics of cokelek in the vanregion,” Veteriner, Fakultesi, Dergis, Ankara Universities Turkey 1997, 44(1): 7-12.
[14]
R. Ponka, E. Beaucher, E. Fokou, G. Kansci, M. Piot, J. Leonil, and F. Gaucheron, “Composition of raw cow milk and artisanal yoghurt collected in Maroua (Cameroon),” African Journal of Biotechnology 2013, 12(49): 6866-6875.
[15]
J. Buttriss, “Nutritional properties of fermented milk products,” International Journal of Dairy Technology 1997, 50: 21-27.
[16]
K. S. Kim, and S. H. Choi, “Proximate components and minerals in fluid dairy products,” Korean Journal of Dairy Science 1993, 15: 49-55.
[17]
R. Moreno-Rojas, P. J. Sanchez-Segarra, M. Garcia-Martinez, M. J. Gordillo-Otero, and M. A. Amaro-Lopez, “Mineral composition of skimmed milk fruit-added yoghurts-nutritional assessment,” Milchwissenschaft 2000, 55: 510-512.
[18]
S. Hekmat, and D. J. McMahon, “Distribution of iron between caseins and whey proteins in acidified milk,” Lebensmittel Wissenschaft und Technologie 1998, 31: 632-638.
[19]
T. Pirkul, A. Temiz, and Y. K. Erdem, “Fortification of yoghurt with calcium salts and its effect on starter microorganisms and yoghurt quality,” International Dairy Journal 1997, 7: 547-552.
[20]
B. Blance, “The nutritional value of yogurt,” International Journal of Immunotherapy 1986, 6: 25-47.
[21]
W. J. Lee, and J. A. Lucey, “Formation and Physical Properties of Yogurt,” Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 2010, 23(9): 1127-1136.
[22]
A. O. A. C. 1997. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International. 16th ed, AOAC: Washington DC, USA.
[23]
J. M. Pauwels, E. Van Ranst, M. Verloo, and Z. A. Mvondo, Analysis methods of major plants elements. Agricultural Publications No. 28, Pedology laboratory manual: Methods of plants and soil analysis, AGCD, Brussels, Belgium, 1992.
[24]
R. K. Robinson, “A dairy product for the future: concentrated yoghurt,” South African Journal of Dairy Technology 1977, 9: 59-61.
[25]
R. R. Shaker, R. Y. Jumah, and B. Abu-Jdayil, “Reological properties of plain yoghurt during coagulation process: impact of fat content and preheat treatment of milk,” Journal of Food Engineering 2000, 44: 175-180.
[26]
A. A. Hofi, H. Dien, and S. Elishibing, “The chemical composition of market yoghurt,” Egyptian Journal of Dairy Science 1994, 6: 25-31.
[27]
B. F. Muhammed, M. M. Abubakar, and O. W. O. Muir, “Effect of culture concentration and inoculation temperature on physicochemical, microbiological and organoleptic properties of yoghurt,” Nigerian Food Journal 2005, 23: 156-165.
[28]
J. J. Weaver, Health benefits of yoghurt, 1993. Retrieved fromwww.leaflady.org/yopghurt/htm
[29]
C. O. Edeogu, F. C. Ezeonu, A. N. C. Okaka, C. E. Ekuma, and S. O. Elom, “Proximate composition of staple food cropsin Ebonyi State (South Eastern Nigeria),” International Journal of Biotechnology and Biochemistry 2007, 3(1): 1-8.
[30]
M. Elham, and M. T. Mostafa, “Evaluation the effect of milk total solids on the relationship between growth and activity of starter cultures and quality of concentrated yoghurt,” American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Science 2007, 2(5): 587-592.
[31]
USDA. Specifications for Yogurt, Non fat Yogurt and Low fat Yogurt, Document 21 CFR, Part 131: 200-203, 2001.
[32]
A. Saint-Eve, C. Levy, M. Le Moigne, V. Ducruet, and I. Souchon, “Quality changes in yogurt during storage in different packaging materials,” Food Chemistry 2008, 110: 285-293.
[33]
O. E. Farinde, T. Adesetan, V. Obatolu, and M. Oladapo, “Chemical and microbial properties of yogurt processed from cow’s milk and soymilk,” Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 2009, 33: 245-254.
[34]
P. Bille, and E. Keya, “A Comparison of Some Properties of Vat-Heated and Dry Skim Milk Powder Fortified Set Yoghurts,” The Journal of Food Technology in Africa 2002, 7(1): 21-23.
[35]
A. Marinescu, and F. Pop, “Variation in physicochemical parameters of probiotic yogurt during refrigeration storage,” Carpathian Journal of Food Science and Technology 2009, 1(2): 18-26.
[36]
R. Eearly, The technology of dairy products. 2nd ed, London: Blackie Academic and Professional, Thompson Science, 1998. Pp 446.
[37]
E. E. Zeigler, and S. J. Fomon, “Lactose enhances mineral absorption in infants,” Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 1983, 2: 288-294.
[38]
M. F. Lee, and S. D. Krasinski, “Human adult-onset lactase decline: an update,” Nutrition Reviews 1998, 56: 1-8.
[39]
FDA, “Milk and cream products and yogurt products,” Food and Drug Administration Federal Register 2009, 74: 2448.
[40]
O. M. A. Mohamed, M. T. F. Nahid, S. O. A. Mohamed, E. M. Gamar Eldin, and E. M. A. Gubara, “Quality Evaluation of Stirred Yoghurt Flavoured with Guddaim (Grewiatenax) Fruit,” Asian Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences 2015, 3(1): 27-33.
[41]
F. J. Gallardo-Escamilla, A. L. Kelly, and C. M. Delahunty, “Mouth feel and flavor of fermented whey with added hydrocolloids,” International Dairy Journal 2007, 17: 308-315.
[42]
A. Y. Tamime, and R. K. Robinson, Yoghurt Science and Technology. 3rd ed, Florida: CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2007. pp. 791.
[43]
N. O. Donkor, A. Henriksson, T. Vasiljevic, and N. Shah, “Effect of acidification on the activity of probiotics in yoghurt during cold storage,” International Dairy Journal 2006, 16: 1181-1189.
[44]
M. E. G. Shills, and V. R. Young, “Modern nutrition in health and disease,” In Nutrition D. C. Neiman, D. E. Buthepodorth, and C. N. Nieman, Eds. USA: Wm C. Brown publishers. 1988, pp. 276-282.
[45]
D. C. Nieman, D. E. Batterworth, and C. N. Nieman, “Nutrition,” USA: Wmc. Brown Publishers, 1992, pp. 237-312.
[46]
M. A. De la Fuentea, M. Fernando, G. Gonzalo, and J. R. Manuela, “Total and soluble contents of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and zinc in yoghurts,” Food Chemistry 2003, 80: 573-578.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186