Microbial Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Factors Influencing the Degradation Process
Bioprocess Engineering
Volume 3, Issue 2, December 2019, Pages: 6-11
Received: Dec. 10, 2019; Accepted: Dec. 20, 2019; Published: Dec. 26, 2019
Views 373      Downloads 74
Supriya Jadhav, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Academy Degree College-Autonomous, Bengaluru, India
Sameer Sharma, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Academy Degree College-Autonomous, Bengaluru, India
Sibi G, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Academy Degree College-Autonomous, Bengaluru, India
Article Tools
Follow on us
Hydrocarbon compounds have been noted to reside the family of neurotoxic and xenobiotic organic pollutants and nowadays petroleum hydrocarbon compounds continually being a major natural worry because of the development of petroleum oil extraction and related products which have major ecological issue. Oil seepage normally happen by mishaps pumping, transportation and refining and petroleum products consist of carcinogenic and mutagenic compounds which could have several consequences on biotic and abiotic factors of the ecosystem. Mainly two methods such as mechanical and chemical methods are normally used to remove hydrocarbons from contaminated places have effectiveness and can be expensive. Bioremediation is the best and advance technology for the treatment of these contaminated places because it is not much expensive and will lead to whole mineralization. Microbial degradation is the major and ultimate natural mechanism by which one can clean up the petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants from the environment. Many indigenous micro-organisms in water and soil are able to degrading hydrocarbon contaminants. A number of limiting factors have been recognized to affect the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. This review summarizes the microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons aerobically and anaerobically and various factors that influencing the process. It may be concluded that microbial degradation can be considered as a key component in the cleanup strategy for petroleum hydrocarbon remediation.
Hydrocarbon Contaminants, Bioremediation, Aerobic and Anaerobic Degradation
To cite this article
Supriya Jadhav, Sameer Sharma, Sibi G, Microbial Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Factors Influencing the Degradation Process, Bioprocess Engineering. Vol. 3, No. 2, 2019, pp. 6-11. doi: 10.11648/j.be.20190302.12
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Al-Baldawi, I. A., Abdullah, S. R. S., Suja, F., Anuar, N. and Mushrifah, I. (2013). Effect of aeration on hydro-carbon phytoremediation capability in pilot sub-surface flow constructed wet land operation. Ecological Engineering. 61: 496–500.
Masood, N., Zakaria, M. P., Ali, M. M., Magam, S. M., Alkhadher, S., Keshavarzifard, M., Vaezzadeh, V. and Hussein, M. A. Distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons in surface sediments from selected locations in Kuala Selangor River, Malaysia. In: From sources to solution. Springer 2014. ISBN: 978-981-4560-69-6.
Deng, M. C., Li, J., Liang, F. R., Yi, M., Xu, X. M., Yuan, J. P., Peng, J., Wu, C. F. and Wang JH. (2014). Isolation and characterization of a novel hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium Achromobacter sp. HZ01 from the crude oil-contaminated seawater at the Daya Bay, southern China. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 83: 79–86.
Bordoloi, S. and Basumatary, B. (2015). Phytoremediation of Hydrocarbon-contaminated soil using sedge species. In: Ansari A, Gill S, Gill R, Lanza G, Newman L (Eds) Phytoremediation. Springer, Cham.
Hou, J., Liu, W., Wanga, B., Wang, Q., Luo, Y. and Franks, A. E. (2015). PGPR enhanced phytoremediation of petroleum contaminated soil and rhizosphere microbial community response. Chemosphere. 138: 592–598.
Priya, A., Mandal, A. K., Ball, A. S., Manefield, M., Lal, B. and Sarma, P. M. (2015). Mass culture strategy for bacterial yeast co-culture for degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine environment. Marine Pollution Bulletin100: 191–199.
Kvenvolden, K. A. and Cooper, C. K. (2003). Natural seepage of crude oil into the marine environment. Geo-Marine Letters. 23: 140–146.
Holliger, C., Gaspard, S., Glod, G., Heijman, C., Schumacher, W., Schwarzenbach, R. P. and Vazques, F. (1997). Contaminated environments in the subsurface and bioremediation: organic contaminants. FEMS Microbiology Reviews. 20: 517–523.
Alvarez, P. J. J. and Vogel, T. M. (1991). Substrate interactions of benzene, toluene, and para-xylene during microbial degradation by pure cultures and mixed culture aquifer slurries. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 57: 2981–2985.
Leahy, J. G. and Colwell, R. R. (1990). Microbial degradation of hydrocarbons in the environment. Microbiological Reviews. 54: 305–315.
Zobell, C. E. (1946). Action of microorganisms on hydrocarbons. Bacteriological Reviews. 10: 1–49.
Atlas, R. M. (1981). Microbial degradation of petroleum hydro-carbons: an environmental perspective. Microbiological Reviews. 45: 180–209.
Atlas RM, Ed., Petroleum Microbiology, Macmillan, New York, NY, USA, 1984.
Atlas, R. M. and Bartha, R. (1992). Hydrocarbon biodegradation and oil spill bioremediation. Advances in Microbial Ecology. 12: 287–338.
Foght, J. M. Westlake, D. W. S. (1987). Biodegradation of hydrocarbons in freshwater. In: Oil in Freshwater: Chemistry, Biology, Counter measure Technology. Vandermeulen, J. H. and Hrudey, S. R. Pergamon Press, New York. 217–230.
Prince, R. C. (1993). Petroleum spill bioremediation in marine environments. Critical Reviews in Microbiology. 19: 217–242.
Swannell, R. P. J., Lee, K. and Mcdonagh, M. (1996). Field evaluations of marine oil spill bioremediation. Microbiological Reviews. 1996. 60: 342–365.
Venosa, A. D., Suidan, M. T., Wrennm, B. A., Strohmeier, K. L., Haines, J. R., Eberhart, B. L., King, D. and Holder, E. (1996). Bioremediation of an experimental oil spill on the shoreline of Delaware Bay. Environmental Science and Technology. 30: 1764–1775.
Venosa, A. D., King, D. W. and Sorial, G. A. (2002). The baffled flask test for dispersant effectiveness: a round Robin evaluation of reproducibility and repeatability. Spill Science and Technology Bulletin. 7: 299–308.
Khan, A. H. A., Tanveer, S., Anees, M., Muhammad, Y. S., Iqbal, M. and Yousaf, S. (2016). Role of nutrients and illuminance in predicting the fate of fungal mediated petroleum hydrocarbon degradation and biomass production. Journal of Environmental Management. 176: 54–60.
Guarino, C., Spada, V. and Sciarrillo, R. (2017). Assessment of three approaches of bioremediation (natural attenuation, landfarming and bioaugmentation – assisted landfarming) for a petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soil. Chemosphere. 170: 10–16.
Sayler, G. S., Hooper, S. W., Layton, A. C. and King, G. M. H. (1990). Catabolic plasmids of environmental and ecological significance. Microbial Ecology. 19: 1–20.
Whyte, L. G., Bourbonnie’re, L. and Greer, C. W. (1997). Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons by psychrotrophic Pseudomonas strains possessing both alkane (alk) and naphthalene (nah) catabolic pathways. Applied Environmental Microbiology. 63: 3719–3723.
Colwell, R. R., Walker, J. D. and Cooney, J. J. (1977). Ecological aspects of microbial degradation of petroleum in the marine environment. Critical Reviews in Microbiology. 5: 423–445.
Atlas, R. M. (1992). Petroleum microbiology. In: Encyclopedia of Microbiology, Academic Press, Baltimore, Md, USA, 363–369.
Amund, O. O. and Nwokoye, N. (1993). Hydrocarbon potentials of yeast isolates from a polluted Lagoon. Journal of Scientific Research and Development. 1: 65–68.
Lal, B. and Khanna, S. (1996). Degradation of crude oil by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Alcaligenes odorans. Journal of Applied Bacteriology. 81: 355–362.
Jones, D. M., Douglas, A. G., Parkes, R. J., Taylor, J., Giger, W. and Schaffner, C. (1983). The recognition of biodegraded petroleum-derived aromatic hydrocarbons in recent marine sediments. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 14: 103–108.
Habe, H., Omori, T. (2003). Genetics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism in diverse aerobic bacteria. Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry. 67: 225–243.
Yakimov, M. M., Timmis, K. N., Golyshin, P. N. (2007). Obligate oil-degrading marine bacteria. Current Opinion in Biotechnology. 18: 257–266.
Brooijmans, R. J. W., Pastink, M. I., Siezen, R. J. (2009). Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria: the oil-spill clean-up crew. Microbial Biotechnology. 2: 587–594.
Rahman, K. S. M., Rahman, K. J., Kourkoutas, Y., Petsas, L., Marchant, R. and Banat, I. M. (2003). Enhanced bioremediation of n-alkane in petroleum sludge using bacterial consortium amended with rhamnolipid and micronutrients. Bioresource Technology. 90: 159–168.
Floodgate G. (1984). The fate of petroleum in marine ecosystems. In Petroleum Microbiology, R. M. Atlas, Macmillan New York, NY, USA. 355–398.
Chaillan, F., Le Fleche, A., Bury, E., Phatavong, Y. H., Grimont, P., Saliot, A. and Oudot, J. (2004). Identification and biodegradation potential of tropical aerobic hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms. Research in Microbiology. 155: 587–595.
Daugulis, A. J. and McCracken, C. M. (2003). Microbial degradation of high and low molecular weight polyaromatic hydrocarbons in a two-phase partitioning bioreactor by two strains of Sphingomonas sp. Biotechnology Letters. 25: 1441–1444.
Pinedo-Rivilla, C., Aleu, J. and Collado, I. (2009). Pollutants biodegradation by fungi. Current Organic Chemistry. 13: 1194–1214.
Cerniglia, C. and Sutherland, J. (2010). Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by fungi. In: McGenity, T. J., van der Meer, J. R. and de Lorenzo, V. (Eds) Handbook of hydrocarbon and lipid microbiology. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg. 2079–2110.
Saraswathy, A. and Hallberg, R. (2002). Degradation of pyrene by indigenous fungi from a former gas-works site. FEMS Microbiology Letters. 210: 227–232.
Gesinde, A. F., Agbo, E. B., Agho, M. O. and Dike, E. F. C. (2008). Bioremediation of some Nigerian and Arabian crude oils by fungal isolates. International Journal of Pure and Applied Science. 2: 37–44.
Cooney, J. J., Edmonds, P. and Brenner, Q. M. (1986). Growth and survival of fuel isolates in hydrocarbon f­uel emulsions. Applied Microbiology. 16: 569–571.
Bailey, N. J. L., Jobson, A. M. and Rogers, M. A. (1973). Bacterial degradation of crude oil: comparison of field and experimental data. Chemical Geology. 11: 203–221.
Hill, E. C. and Thomas, A. R. (1976) Microbiological aspects of supersonic aircraft fuel. In: Sharpley, J. M. and Kaplan, A. M. (Eds) Proceedings of the third international biodegradation symposium. Applied Science Publishers Ltd., London, 157–174.
Hill, E. C. (1978). Biodegradation of hydrocarbon-based products in industrial use. In: Watkinson, J. R. (Ed) Developments in biodegradation of hydrocarbons-1. Applied Science Publishers, London, 201–226.
Davies, J. S. and Westlake, D. W. S. (1979). Crude oil utilization by fungi. Canadian Journal of Microbiology. 25: 146–156.
Bogusławska-Was, E. and Da Browski, W. (2001). The seasonal variability of yeasts and yeast-like organisms in water and bottom sediment of the Szczecin Lagoon. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health. 203: 451–458.
O’Brien, P. Y. and Dixon, P. S. (1976). The effects of oil and oil components on algae; a review. British Phycological Journal. 11: 115–142.
Bossert, I. and Bartha, R. (1984). The fate of petroleum in soil ecosystems. In: Atlas RM (Ed) Petroleum microbiology. MacMillan, New York. 434–476.
Bartha, R. and Bossert, I. (1984). The treatment and disposal of petroleum wastes. In: Petroleum Microbiology, R. M. Atlas, Macmillan, New York, NY, USA. 553–578.
Cooney, J. J. (1984). The fate of petroleum pollutants in fresh water ecosystems. In: Petroleum Microbiology, R. M. Atlas, Macmillan, New York, NY, USA. 399–434.
Bagi, A., Pampanin, D. M., Brakstad, O. G. and Kommedal, R. (2013). Estimation of hydrocarbon bio-degradation rates in marine environments: a critical review of the Q10 approach. Marine Environmental Research. 89: 83–90.
van Beilen, J. B., Funhoff, E. G., van Loon, A., Just, A., Kaysser, L., Bouza, M., Holtackers, R., Rothlisberger, M., Li, Z. and Witholt, B. (2006). Cytochrome P450 alkane hydroxylases of the CYP15 family are common in alkane-degrading eubacteria lacking integral membrane alkane hydroxylases. Applied Environmental Microbiology. 72: 59–65.
van Beilen, J. B., Funhoff, E. G. (2007). Alkane hydroxylases involved in microbial alkane degradation. Applied Environmental Microbiology. 74: 13–21.
Yeung, C. W., van Stempvoort, D. R., Spoelstra, J., Bickerton, G., Voralek, J. and Greer, CW. (2013). Bacterial community evidence for anaerobic degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in cold climate groundwater. Cold Regions Science and Technology. 86: 55–68.
Boyd, S. A. and Shelton, D. R. (1984). Anaerobic biodegradation of chlorophenols in fresh and acclimated sludge. Applied Environmental Microbiology. 47: 272–277.
Chen, M., Hong, C. S., Bush, B. and Rhee, G. Y. (1988). Anaerobic biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls by bacteria from Hudson River sediments. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 16: 95–105.
Azadpour-Keeley, A., Keeley, J. W., Russell, H. H. and Sewell, G. W. (2001). Monitored natural attenuation of contaminants in the subsurface: processes. Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation. 21: 97–107.
Zhou, E. and Crawford, R. L. (1995). Effects of oxygen, nitrogen, and temperature on gasoline biodegradation in soil. Biodegradation. 6: 127–140.
Salminen, J. M., Hanninen, P. J., Leveinen, J., Lintinen, P. T. J. and Jorgensen, K. S. (2006). Occurrence and rates of terminal electron-accepting processes and recharge processes in petroleum hydrocarbon-­contaminated subsurface. Journal of Environmental Quality. 35: 2273–2282.
Hasinger, M., Scherr, K. E., Lundaa, T., Brauer, L., Zach, C. and Loibner, AP. (2012). Changes in iso- and n-alkane distribution during biodegradation of crude oil under nitrate and sulphate reducing conditions. Journal of Biotechnology. 157: 490–498.
McDonald, I. R., Miguez, C. B., Rogge, G., Bourque, D., Wendlandt, K. D., Groleau, D. and Murrell, J. C. (2006). Diversity of soluble methane monooxygenase-containing methanotrophs isolated from polluted environments. FEMS Microbiology Letters. 255: 225–232.
van Beilen, J. B., Neuenschwunder, M., Smits T. H. M., Roth, C., Balada, S. B. and Witholt, B. (2003). Rubredoxins involved in alkane degradation. Journal of Bacteriology. 184; 1722–1732.
Iida, T., Sumita, T., Ohta, A. and Takagi, M. (2000). The cytochrome P450ALK multigene family of an n-alkane-assimilating yeast, Yarrowia lipolytica: cloning and characterization of genes coding for new CYP52 family members. Yeast. 16: 1077–1087.
van Beilen, J. B., Funhoff, E. G., Van Loon, A. (2006). Cytochrome P450 alkane hydroxylases of the CYP153 family are common in alkane-degrading eubacteria lacking integral membrane alkane hydroxylases. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 72: 59–65.
Maeng, J. H. O., Sakai, Y., Tani, Y. and Kato, N. (1996). Isolation and characterization of a novel oxygenase that catalyzes the first step of n-alkane oxidation in Acinetobacter sp. strain M-1. Journal of Bacteriology. 178: 3695–3700.
Adebusoye, S. A., Ilori, M. O., Amund. O. O., Teniola, O. D. and Olatope, S. O. (2007). Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a polluted tropical stream. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 23: 1149-1159.
Abu, G. O. and Ogiji, P. A. (1995). Initial test of a bioremediation scheme for the clean-up of an oil-polluted water body in a rural community in Nigeria. Bioresource Technology. 58: 7-12.
Radwan, S. S., Al-Hassan, R. H. and Salamah, S. (2002). Bioremediation of oily sea water by bacteria immobilized in biofilms coating microalgae. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation. 50: 55-59.
Cerniglia, C. E., Gibson, D. T., van Baalen, C. (1983). Oxidation of naphthalene by cyanobacteria and microalgae. Journal of General Microbiology. 116: 495-500.
Bossert, I. and Bartha, R. (1984). The fate of petroleum in soil ecosystems. Macmillan Publishing Co., New York. 3: 434-476.
Xua, Y. and Lu, M. (2010). Bioremediation of crude oil-contaminated soil: Comparison of different biostimulation and bioaugmentation treatments. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 83: 395-401.
van Hamme, J. D., Singh, A. and Ward, O. P. (2003). Recent advances in petroleum micro-biology. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. 67: 503-549.
Atlas, R. M. (1988). Microbiology-fundamentals and applications, 2nd edn. Macmillan, New York.
Widdel, F. and Rabus, R. (2001). Anaerobic biodegradation of saturated and aromatic hydro-carbons. Current Opinion in Biotechnology. 12: 259-276.
Diaz, M. P., Boyd, K. G. and Grigson, S. J. W. (2002). Biodegradation of crude oil across a wide range of salinities by an extremely halotolerant bacterial consortium MPD-M, immobilized onto polypropylene fibers. Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 79: 145-153.
Schwarz, J. R., Walker, J. D. and Colwell, R. R. (1974). Deep-sea bacteria: Growth and utilization of hydrocarbons at ambient and in situ pressure. Applied Microbiology. 28: 982-986.
Schnoor, J., Licht, L. A., McCutcheon, S. C., Wolfe, N. L. Carreira, L. H. (1995). Phytoremediation of organic and nutrient contaminants. Environmental Science and Technology. 29: 318A–323A.
Miya, R. K. and Firestone, M. K. (2001). Enhanced phenanthrene biodegradation in soil by slender oat root exudates and root debris. Journal of Environmental Quality. 30: 1911–1918.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186