Nutraceutical Potential of Two Wild Edible Fruits Growing in Sub-Sahara Region of Nigeria
American Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering
Volume 1, Issue 2, May 2017, Pages: 52-58
Received: Mar. 10, 2017;
Accepted: Apr. 5, 2017;
Published: May 15, 2017
Views 1597 Downloads 76
Salisu Abubakar, Biotechnology Advanced Research Centre, Sheda Science and Technology Complex, Abuja, Nigeria
Veronica Archibong Etim, Biotechnology Advanced Research Centre, Sheda Science and Technology Complex, Abuja, Nigeria
Abubakar Bello Usman, Biotechnology Advanced Research Centre, Sheda Science and Technology Complex, Abuja, Nigeria
Abubakar Isyaku, Biotechnology Advanced Research Centre, Sheda Science and Technology Complex, Abuja, Nigeria
Babura Bashir Sabo, Natural Resources Management and Climate Change, Agricultural Research Institute, Jigawa, Nigeria
This work was carried out to assess nutraceutical values of two prominent wild edible fruit, Hyphaene thebaica (L.) Mart. and Borassus aethiopum Mart. from family Arecaceae. Determination of phytochemical, proximate, minerals and antioxidant potentials were carried out. The proximate analysis of the moisture, ash content and crude fat reveals (6.74%, 6.88%, 7.29%, 6.53% and 7.10%, 7.23%) for H. thebaica and B. aethiopum respectively. The B. aethiopum ranked highest in crude fibre (32.15% ), while the highest carbohydrate content was determined in H. thebaica (65.90% ), the protein content of both fruits were observed to be low (8.33±1.4%) and (3.34% ) for H. thebaica and B. aethiopum, respectively. The mineral analysis revealed that in both samples sodium (Na) was highest 14.06mg/g in B. aethiopum and 14.54mg/g, in H. thebaica, Calcium (Ca) 6.20mg/g in B. aethiopum and H. thebaica 5.00±0.06, Potassium (K), 4.57mg/g in B. aethiopum and H. thebaica 5.60mg/g, Magnesium (Mg) 2.03mg/g, in B. aethiopum and H. thebaica 1.53mg/g. The antioxidant activity of the aqueous extracts were determined and compared with the standard vitamin C, using stable 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and ascertained by measuring reducing power, the extracts showed promising antioxidant activity at 0.5mg/ml, and the IC50 values were calculated using linear regressions (0.86, 0.98, and 1) for vitamin C, B. aethiopum and H. thebaica, respectively. The results indicated that B. aethiopum and H. thebaica fruits possessed nutraceuticals values very much comparable with the commercial fruits reported earlier such as Magnifera indica, Anarcadium occidentalis, and Psidium guajava just to mention but few.
Veronica Archibong Etim,
Abubakar Bello Usman,
Babura Bashir Sabo,
Nutraceutical Potential of Two Wild Edible Fruits Growing in Sub-Sahara Region of Nigeria, American Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering.
Vol. 1, No. 2,
2017, pp. 52-58.
Adepoju, T. O., (2009). Proximate composition and micronutrient potentials of three locally available wild fruit Nigeria. Afr. J. of Agric. Research, 9: 887-892.
Nahar, N., Rahman S. and M. Mosiihuzzaman, 1990. Analysis of carbohydrates in seven edible fruits of Bangladesh. J. Sci. Food Agric. 51: 185-192.
Barminas, J. D., Charles M. and D., Emmanuel, (1998). Mineral composition of nonconventional leafy vegetables. Plant Foods Hum. Nutr.53: 29-36.
Mann, A., Yahaya A. Y., and I. D. Suleiman, (2007). Physiochemical studies of some fruits of Nigerian medicinal plants used for treatment of respiratory diseases. Chem. Class Journal. 4:91-94.
Jyotsna Mishra, R. K., Srivastava S. V., Shukla Singleton V. L. and C. S. Raghav, 2007. Antioxidants in Aromatic and Medicinal Plants, Science and Tech Entrepreneur, 7: 1-16.
Tapan, S., (2011a). Nutritional composition of wild edible fruits in Meghalaya state of India and their ethnobotanical importance. Research J. of Bot. 2: 58-67.
Namiki, M., (1999). Antioxidant-antimutagens in foods. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 29: 273-300.
WWW.Worldagroforestory.orgaf/treedb- (Accessed on 15 February, 2011).
Burkill, H. M., (1997). The useful plants of west tropical Africa, 2nd (Edn), Royal Botanical garden, Kew, 4: 371-373.
Adaya, A. L., Bitrus H., Fanjoji M., Eaton N. and D. Gambo (1977). Hidden harvest project in research series compiled by 11ED and HNNCP. 47-53.
Hetta, M. H., Hetta M. H. and N. Z. Yassin, 2006a. Comparative studies on hypocholesterolemic effect of different fractions of Hyphaene thebaica (Doum) in experimental animals. Die Pharmazie- An Int. J. of Pharm. Sci., 61: 230-232.
Kamis, A. B., Modu S., Zauna H. and T. A., Oniyangi, 2003. Preliminary biochemical and haematological effects of aqueous suspension of pulp of H. thebaica (L) Mart in rats. Biokemistri, 13: 1-7.
Dosumu, O. O., Nwosu F. O. and C. D., Nwogu, (2006). Antimicrobial studies and Phytochemical screening of extracts H. thebaica (Linn) Mart fruits. Int. J. of Trop. Med. 186-189.
Gendy, A., El-Mileegy E., Ghyaty H., Malek A. and M., El-Hamid, (2008). The beneficial dietary hypotensive and hypolipidaemic Effects of Hyphaene thebaica (Doum). The Internet J. of Alter. Med. 7 (1).
Hetta, M. H. and N. Z. Yassin, 2006b. Effect of Hyphaene thebaica on sperm count and serum testosterone in mature male rats. Submitted to conference: Environmental pollution and human health in 21st century. Beni Sueif University, Egypt.
Sharaf, A., Sovour A., Gomaa N. and M. Youssaf, 1972. Some pharmaceutical studies on H. thebaica Mart fruit. Plant Food for Human Nutrition, 6: 129-199.
Akinniyi, J. A., Waziri M. and H. S. Usman, (2010). Assessment of the anabolic Effect of androgens of the edible portion of the shoot of Giginya plant (Borassus aethiopum mart). J. Sci Res. 2:362-338.
Waziri, M., Akinniyi J. A. and M. A., Chidi, 2011. Elemental composition of ‘Dalang’: A food condiment from evaporated extract of Borassus aethiopum fruit ash. Am. j. of food nutri. 1:123-125.
C-GIDD, (2008). Canback Global Income Distribution Database. Canback Dangel. Retrieved.
Adesuyi, A. O., Elumm I. K., Adaramola F. B. and A. G. M. Nwokocha, 2012. Nutritional and Phytochemical Screening of Garcinia kola. Adv. J. of Food Sci. and Tech. 1: 9-14.
Sofowora, A., 1993. Medicinal plants and Traditional Medicine in Africa. Spectrum Books, Ibadan.150.
Harbone, J. B., 1973. Phytochemical Methods London. Chapman and Hall Ltd, 49-188.
AOAC, (1990). Official Methods of Analysis (15thedn), Association of official analytical chemists. Washington D.C.USA, 85 – 89.
Blois, M. S., (1958). Antioxidant determination by the use of a stable free radical Nature, 1199-1200.
Ayoola, G. A., Sofidiya T., Odukoya O. and H. A. B. Coker, (2006). Phytochemical screening and free radical scavenging activity of some Nigerian medicinal plants. J. Pharm. Sci. and Pharm. Pract. 8: 133-136.
Middleton EJr, Kandaswani C and TC Theoharides, 2000. The effects of plant flavonoids on mammalian cells, implication for inflammation, heart disease and cancer Pharmacology, 52:673-751.
Ren, W., Qian Z., Wang H., Zhu L. and L., Zhang, 2003. Flavonoids: Promising anticancer agents. Medicinal Res Rev. 4: 519–534.
Zand R. S. R., Jenkins D. J. A., and E. P., Diamandis, 2002. Flavonoids and steroid hormone- dependent cancers. J. Chromatogr. B. 77: 219–232.
Yao, L. H., Jiang, YM, Shi J., TomaDatta F. A. N., Singanusong R. and S. S., Chen, 2004. Flavonoids in Food and Their Health Benefits. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 59: 113–122.
Bele, A. A., Jadhav V. M. and V. J., Kadam, (2010). Potential of Tannins: Areview. Asian J. of plant sci. 9: 209-214.
Michael, C. H., 2008. Western poison-Oak; Toxicodendron diver-silobum. 1st Edn., Global Twitcher. Nicklas Stromberg, 49.
Asaolu, S. S., Adefemi O. S., Oyakilome G., Ajibulu K. E. and M. F. Asaolu, (2012). Proximate and Mineral Composition of Nigerian Leafy Vegetables. J. of Food Res. 3: 214-218.
Udeme, J., Ogoloma Kpobari W., Nkpaa Joyce O, Akaninwor A. and A. Uwakwe (2013). Proximate, Phytochemical and Mineral Elements Compositions of Some Edible Fruits Grown in Oil Producing Community of Rivers State, Nigeria. IOSR. J. of Env. Sci. Tox. And Food Tech. (IOSR-JESTFT), 5: 38-46.
Waleed, A., Zhang L., Mohammed D., Mohammed A., Gasmalla A., Abubakr M, Elshareif O, and Mallika T. (2014). Physicochemical, Nutritional and Functional Properties of the Epicarp, Flesh and Pitted Sample of Doum Fruit (Hyphaene Thebaica). Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 2:180-186.
Adzinyo, O. A., Kpodo F. M., Asimah V. K. and Asante-Dornyinah D., (2015). Sensory and Physicochemical Characteristics of Naturally Flavoured Borassus aethiopum Syrups for Potential Applications in Food Products. Food Science and Quality Management, 45:109-113.
Adebisi, F. A., Pius I. P., Michael A. O., Olutayo O. O., Olakunle F. A. and T. F., Akanji, (2012). Chemical Composition and Anti- Oxidant Capacity of the Fruit Pulp of Adansonia digitata L. Int. J. of App. Chem. 3: 165-172.
Nelson, D. L. and M. M. Cox, 2008. Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry. 5th Edn., W. H. Freeman and Company. Madison Avenue, New York, 343.
Koleva II van Beek, T. A., Linssen J. P., de Groot A. and L. N., Evstatieva, 2002. Screening of Plant extracts for antioxidant activity: a comparative study on three testing methods. Phytochem. Anal. 13: 8-17.
World Health Organization, 1996. Trace Elements in human nutrition and health, Macmillan/Ceuterick- Geneva, 248286.
Tapan, S., (2011b). Antioxidant Activity of Some Wild Edible Fruits of Meghalaya State in India. Advances in Biological Research. 3: 155-160.