Using Landsat Data to Assess the Status of Coral Reefs Cover along the Red Sea Coast, Egypt
International Journal of Ecotoxicology and Ecobiology
Volume 4, Issue 1, March 2019, Pages: 17-31
Received: Dec. 29, 2018;
Accepted: Feb. 16, 2019;
Published: Mar. 14, 2019
Views 195 Downloads 21
Mostafa Khaled, Institute for Marine Remote Sensing, College of Marine Science, University of South Florida, St. Petersburg, USA; Department of Marine Science, National Authority for Remote Sensing & Space Science, Cairo, Egypt; Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt
Frank Muller-Karger, Institute for Marine Remote Sensing, College of Marine Science, University of South Florida, St. Petersburg, USA
Ahmad Obuid-Allah, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt
Mahmoud Ahmed, Department of Marine Science, National Authority for Remote Sensing & Space Science, Cairo, Egypt
Sameh El-Kafrawy, Department of Marine Science, National Authority for Remote Sensing & Space Science, Cairo, Egypt
The Egyptian Red Sea coast has experienced rapid development since the 1970’s. In particular, the coastal area near the City of Hurghada has been transformed into a long strip of touristic villages and hotels in this short time span. This is an area that has historically had abundant and diverse coral reef communities. To assess possible impacts on benthic coral reef cover in the region, Landsat satellite data collected over the Red Sea from 1973 through 2015 were analyzed to estimate urban expansion in the Hurghada region, shoreline changes, and changes in coral reef cover over time. A time series of satellite observations using Landsat 1-MSS, Landsat 5-TM, Landsat 7-ETM+, and Landsat 8-OLI was assembled, with images acquired in 1973, 1984, 1987, 1992, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2010, and 2015. Images were geometrically, radiometrically and atmospherically corrected, and a water-column correction was implemented prior to comparing images to assess change in landcover. The results show that during the last 42 years, the coral reef cover decreased 6.21 Km2 while the built coastal area increased 13.4 Km2. These observations were used to compute total economic value (TEV) of coral reef habitats and the cost of degradation in terms of physical losses of coral reef area which equals about18.63$ Billion.
Using Landsat Data to Assess the Status of Coral Reefs Cover along the Red Sea Coast, Egypt, International Journal of Ecotoxicology and Ecobiology.
Vol. 4, No. 1,
2019, pp. 17-31.
Lieske E, Fiedler KE, Myers RF. Coral Reef Guide: Red Sea to Gulf of Aden, South Oman;[the Definitive Guide to Over 1200 Species of Underwater Life]: Collins; 2004.
Ahmed B. Cost of Degradation of Coral reefs and Fisheries Caused by Tourism Development, Egypt's Red Sea A case study of Hurghada–Safaga Area. Institute of National Planning, Cairo, Nasr City, Egypt. http://kenanaonline. com/users/drBarrania/posts/119025. 2010.
Spalding M, Spalding MD, Ravilious C, Green EP. World atlas of coral reefs: Univ of California Press; 2001.
PERSGA. The status of Coral Reefs in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden: 2009: PERSGA, technical series no 16, PERSGA Jeddah. 2010.
Kotb MM, Hanafy MH, Rirache H, et al. Status of coral reefs in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden region. Status of coral reefs of the world. 2008:67-78.
Shaalan IM. Sustainable tourism development in the Red Sea of Egypt threats and opportunities. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2005; 13(2):83-87.
Smits R, Shousha N. Egypt’s Red Sea resorts… trends and opportunities’. Hotel on Lone. 1998.
Holden A. Environment and Tourism. 2000.
Hilmi N, Safa A, Reynaud S. Coral Reefs and Tourism in Egypt's Red Sea. Topics in Middle Eastern and North African Economies. 2012; 14.
Serour RK. An environmental economic assessment of the impacts of recreational scuba diving on coral reef systems in Hurghada, the Red Sea, Egypt2004.
Hawkins JP, Roberts CM. The growth of coastal tourism in the Red Sea: present and future effects on coral reefs. Ambio. 1994; 23(8):503-508.
GEF. Report 4 – Reef Recreation Management Action Plan for the Egyptian Red Sea 1998.
Bryant D, Burke L, McManus J, Spalding M. Reefs at risk: a map-based indicator of threats to the worlds coral reefs. 1998.
Wilson EH, Hurd JD, Civco DL, Prisloe MP, Arnold C. Development of a geospatial model to quantify, describe and map urban growth. Remote sensing of environment. 2003; 86(3):275-285.
Mundia CN, Aniya M. Analysis of land use/cover changes and urban expansion of Nairobi city using remote sensing and GIS. International journal of Remote sensing. 2005; 26(13):2831-2849.
Shalaby A, Tateishi R. Remote sensing and GIS for mapping and monitoring land cover and land-use changes in the Northwestern coastal zone of Egypt. Applied Geography. 2007; 27(1):28-41.
Haïfa Ben-Romdhane, Mohamed Al-Musallami, Prashanth Reddy Marpu, Taha B. M. J. Ouarda & Hosni Ghedira (2018): Change detection using remote sensing in a reef environment of the UAE during the extreme event of El Niño 2015–2016, International Journal of Remote Sensing, DOI: 10.1080/01431161.2018.1460502.
J. D. Hedley, Chris Roelfsema, Vittorio Brando, Claudia Giardino, Tiit Kutser, Stuart Phinn, Peter J. Mumby, Omar Barrilero, Jean Laporte, Benjamin Koetz (2018): Coral reef applications of Sentinel-2: Coverage, characteristics, bathymetry and benthic mapping with comparison to Landsat 8. Remote Sensing of Environment 216 (2018) 598–614.
Alberti M, Weeks R, Coe S. Urban land-cover change analysis in central Puget Sound. Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing. 2004; 70(9):1043-1052.
Xiao J, Shen Y, Ge J, et al. Evaluating urban expansion and land use change in Shijiazhuang, China, by using GIS and remote sensing. Landscape and urban planning. 2006; 75(1-2):69-80.
Batty M, Howes D. Predicting temporal patterns in urban development from remote imagery. 2001.
Herold M, Goldstein NC, Clarke KC. The spatiotemporal form of urban growth: measurement, analysis and modeling. Remote sensing of Environment. 2003; 86(3):286-302.
E. E. Ampoua, Sylvain Ouillon, Corina Iovan, Serge Andréfouët (2018): Change detection of Bunaken Island coral reefs using 15 years of very high resolution satellite images: A kaleidoscope of habitat trajectories. Marine Pollution Bulletin 131 (2018) 83–95.
Muller D, Zeller M. Land use dynamics in the central highlands of Vietnam: a spatial model combining village survey data with satellite imagery interpretation. Agricultural Economics. 2002; 27(3):333-354.
Macleod RD, Congalton RG. A quantitative comparison of change-detection algorithms for monitoring eelgrass from remotely sensed data. Photogrammetric engineering and remote sensing. 1998; 64(3):207-216.
Singh A. Review article digital change detection techniques using remotely-sensed data. International journal of remote sensing. 1989; 10(6):989-1003.
Zainal A, Dalby D, Robinson I. Monitoring marine ecological changes on the east coast of Bahrain with Landsat TM. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing;(United States). 1993; 59(3).
Ahmad W, Neil DT. An evaluation of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) digital data for discriminating coral reef zonation: Heron Reef (GBR). International Journal of Remote Sensing. 1994; 15(13):2583-2597.
EEAA. annual reports on impact monitoring program at the Red Sea, Gulf of Suez and Gulf of Aquba. Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency unpublished reports. . 1998-2012.
Lyzenga DR. Remote sensing of bottom reflectance and water attenuation parameters in shallow water using aircraft and Landsat data. International journal of remote sensing. 1981; 2(1):71-82.
Q. T. K. Ngoc (2018): Assessing the value of coral reefs in the face of climate change: The evidence from Nha Trang Bay, Vietnam . Ecosystem Services 35 (2019) 99–108.
Bank W. Arab Republic of Egypt, Cost Assessment of Environment Degradation Report, Rural Development. Water and Environment Dep. Middle East and North Africa Region. 2002.
Vanderstraete T, Goossens R, Ghabour T. The use of multi‐temporal Landsat images for the change detection of the coastal zone near Hurghada, Egypt. International Journal of Remote Sensing. 2006; 27(17):3645-3655.
El-Gamily H, Nasr S, El-Raey M. An assessment of natural and human-induced changes along Hurghada and Ras Abu Soma coastal area, Red Sea, Egypt. International Journal of Remote Sensing. 2001; 22(15):2999-3014.
Kamh S, Ashmawy M, Kilias A, Christaras B. Evaluating urban land cover change in the Hurghada area, Egypt, by using GIS and remote sensing. International Journal of Remote Sensing. 2012; 33(1):41-68.
Dewidar KM. Landfill detection in Hurghada, North Red Sea, Egypt, using thematic mapper images. International Journal of Remote Sensing. 2002; 23(5):939-948.
Moufaddal WM. Use of satellite imagery as environmental impact assessment tool: a case study from the NW Egyptian Red Sea coastal zone. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 2005; 107(1-3):427-452.
Reopanichkul P, Schlacher TA, Carter R, Worachananant S. Sewage impacts coral reefs at multiple levels of ecological organization. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 2009; 58(9):1356-1362.
Baker D, Rodriguez-Martinez R, Fogel M. Tourism’s nitrogen footprint on a Mesoamerican coral reef. Coral Reefs. 2013; 32(3):691-699.
Naumann MS, Bednarz VN, Ferse SC, Niggl W, Wild C. Monitoring of coastal coral reefs near Dahab (Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea) indicates local eutrophication as potential cause for change in benthic communities. Environmental monitoring and assessment. 2015; 187(2):44.
Wilson M, de Meyer K, Skeat H. The GEF Egyptian Red Sea Coastal and Marine Resource Management Project. A decade of effort, experience and trade-offs required to achieve marine tourism and conservation goals. presented at: First International Tropical Marine Ecosystems Management Symposium (ITMEMS)1998.
Jameson SC, Ammar M, Saadalla E, Mostafa H, Riegl B. A coral damage index and its application to diving sites in the Egyptian Red Sea. Coral reefs. 1999; 18(4):333-339.
Riegl B, Luke K. Ecological parameters of dynamited reefs in the northern Red Sea and their relevance to reef rehabilitation. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 1999; 37(8-12):488-498.
JICA aE. State of oil pollution and management in Suez Gulf region. Japan International Cooperation Agency and Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency. No. 135-139. 2008.