Hermaphroditism induction of Sub-Lethal Dose of Atrazine and Atrazine-Nitrate on the Egyptian Toad, Sclerophrys Regularis
International Journal of Ecotoxicology and Ecobiology
Volume 3, Issue 3, September 2018, Pages: 63-72
Received: Dec. 4, 2018; Accepted: Dec. 20, 2018; Published: Jan. 14, 2019
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Authors
Ali Gamal Gadel-Rab, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Assiut Branch, Assiut, Egypt
Fatma Abdel-Regal Mahmoud, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt
Rashad El Sayed Said, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Assiut Branch, Assiut, Egypt
Samy Abdel-Latif Saber, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt
Boshra Abdel-Aziz El Salkh, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Girls branch, Cairo, Egypt
Aml Sayed Said, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Girls branch, Cairo, Egypt
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Abstract
In this study, atrazine has been shown to act as a potent endocrine disruptor in amphibians either alone or in combination with nitrate under stable laboratory conditions, causing altered gonadal development at the sub-lethal concentrations. A control group and three treatments were tested; atrazine, nitrate, atrazine- nitrate treatments with doses of 300 μg/L, 200 mg/L and their combination, respectively. Atrazine exhibited increase the presence of testicular oocytes TOs in most treated specimens; furthermore, the sizes of seminiferous tubules were decreased compared to control group. Conversely no intersex individuals were detected in the nitrate treatment alone. The combined effects of nitrate and atrazine were not additive or synergistic but were similar to the effects of atrazine in raising the percentage of intersex but with increasing the size of testicular oocyte compared to atrazine alone. On the other hand, the control group in the present study did not contain the rudimentary testicular oocytes and showed normal structures. These gonadal abnormalities may reduce reproductive success and could be a major factor behind amphibian declines. Also, these negative impacts may be a bioindicator alarming the ecosystem disrupting caused by the uncontrolled apply of these chemicals in agriculture.
Keywords
Atrazine, Nitrate, Intersex, Amphibians, Sclerophrys Regularis
To cite this article
Ali Gamal Gadel-Rab, Fatma Abdel-Regal Mahmoud, Rashad El Sayed Said, Samy Abdel-Latif Saber, Boshra Abdel-Aziz El Salkh, Aml Sayed Said, Hermaphroditism induction of Sub-Lethal Dose of Atrazine and Atrazine-Nitrate on the Egyptian Toad, Sclerophrys Regularis, International Journal of Ecotoxicology and Ecobiology. Vol. 3, No. 3, 2018, pp. 63-72. doi: 10.11648/j.ijee.20180303.11
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Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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