Simulation of the Hydraulics and Treatment Performance of Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland Treating Greywater
International Journal of Ecotoxicology and Ecobiology
Volume 3, Issue 2, June 2018, Pages: 42-50
Received: Mar. 16, 2018; Accepted: Apr. 2, 2018; Published: May 10, 2018
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James Messo Raude, Department of Soil, Water & Environmental Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture & Technology, Nairobi, Kenya
Benedict Mwavu Mutua, Division of Planning, Partnership, Research & Innovation, Kibabi University, Bungoma, Kenya
David Ngugi Kamau, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Egerton University, Egerton, Kenya
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Constructed wetlands (CWs) have evolved as some of reliable wastewater treatment technologies. Various types of CWs differ in their main design characteristics and in processes responsible for pollutant removal. Classification of CWS is based on the type of vegetation used and hydrological parameters involved and can thus be classified as free water surface or subsurface flow systems. Further, subsurface flow systems can be classified according to flow direction as vertical or horizontal. This study considers horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSFCWs) which introduces the mechanistic, dynamic compartmental model-Constructed Wetlands 2D (CW2D). The model has successfully been utilized to evaluate the performance of vertical flow constructed wetlands and is being tested on HFCWs. An outdoor pilot scale HSFCW system was established in Nakuru, Kenya. CW2D was calibrated, validated and used to simulate hydraulic performance of HSFCW system. The model was used in predicting effluent concentrations of the main greywater pollutants. In general, the results obtained showed a good match with the measured data. CW2D is an effective tool for evaluating the performance of CWs and can provide insights in treatment problems at an existing CW. The same methodology can be used to optimize existing systems.
Constructed Wetlands, Greywater, Hydraulic, Model, Predict
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James Messo Raude, Benedict Mwavu Mutua, David Ngugi Kamau, Simulation of the Hydraulics and Treatment Performance of Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland Treating Greywater, International Journal of Ecotoxicology and Ecobiology. Vol. 3, No. 2, 2018, pp. 42-50. doi: 10.11648/j.ijee.20180302.12
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This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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