Simulation of the Hydraulics and Treatment Performance of Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland Treating Greywater
International Journal of Ecotoxicology and Ecobiology
Volume 3, Issue 2, June 2018, Pages: 42-50
Received: Mar. 16, 2018;
Accepted: Apr. 2, 2018;
Published: May 10, 2018
Views 1407 Downloads 91
James Messo Raude, Department of Soil, Water & Environmental Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture & Technology, Nairobi, Kenya
Benedict Mwavu Mutua, Division of Planning, Partnership, Research & Innovation, Kibabi University, Bungoma, Kenya
David Ngugi Kamau, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Egerton University, Egerton, Kenya
Constructed wetlands (CWs) have evolved as some of reliable wastewater treatment technologies. Various types of CWs differ in their main design characteristics and in processes responsible for pollutant removal. Classification of CWS is based on the type of vegetation used and hydrological parameters involved and can thus be classified as free water surface or subsurface flow systems. Further, subsurface flow systems can be classified according to flow direction as vertical or horizontal. This study considers horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSFCWs) which introduces the mechanistic, dynamic compartmental model-Constructed Wetlands 2D (CW2D). The model has successfully been utilized to evaluate the performance of vertical flow constructed wetlands and is being tested on HFCWs. An outdoor pilot scale HSFCW system was established in Nakuru, Kenya. CW2D was calibrated, validated and used to simulate hydraulic performance of HSFCW system. The model was used in predicting effluent concentrations of the main greywater pollutants. In general, the results obtained showed a good match with the measured data. CW2D is an effective tool for evaluating the performance of CWs and can provide insights in treatment problems at an existing CW. The same methodology can be used to optimize existing systems.
James Messo Raude,
Benedict Mwavu Mutua,
David Ngugi Kamau,
Simulation of the Hydraulics and Treatment Performance of Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland Treating Greywater, International Journal of Ecotoxicology and Ecobiology.
Vol. 3, No. 2,
2018, pp. 42-50.
APHA, 1985. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, American Public Health Association, 19th Edition, Washington DC.
[A] Bonanno, G., Vymazal, J. and Cirelli, G. L., 2018. Translocation, accumulation and bioindication of trace elements in wetland plants. Science of The Total Environment, 631, pp. 252-261.
Carsel, R. F., and Parrish, R. S. 1988. Developing joint distributions of soil water retention characteristics, Water Resources Research, 24, pp. 755-769.
Chavan, P. V., and Dennett, K. E. 2008. Water simulation model for nitrogen, phosphorous and sediment retention in constructed wetlands, water air soil pollution, 187, pp. 109-118.
Chazarenc, F., Merlin, G., and Gonthier, Y. 2003. Hydrodynamics of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands. Ecological Engineering, 21, pp. 165-173.
Crites, R., and Tchobanoglous, G. 1998. Small and decentralized wastewater management systems. McGraw-Hill, New York.
Filho, F. J. C. M., Sobrinho, T. A., Steffen, J. L., Arias, C. A. and Paulo, P. L., 2018. Hydraulic and hydrological aspects of an evapotranspiration-constructed wetland combined system for household greywater treatment. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A, pp. 1-8.
Garcial, J., Chiva, J., Aguirre, P., Alvarez, E., Sierra, J., and Mujeriengo, R. 2004. Hydraulic behavior of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands with different aspect ratio and granular medium size, Ecological Engineering, 23(3), pp. 177-187.
Ghunmi, A. L., Zeeman, G., Fayyad, M., and van Lier, J. B. 2011. Grey water treatment systems: A review. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology. 41 (7), pp. 657-698.
Githinji, L. J., Dane, J. H. and Walker, R. H., 2011. Physical and hydraulic properties of inorganic amendments and modeling their effects on water movement in sand-based root zones. Irrigation science, 29(1), pp. 65-77.
Ilyas, H. and Masih, I., 2018. The effects of different aeration strategies on the performance of constructed wetlands for phosphorus removal. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, pp. 1-18.
Jenkins, G. A. 2003. Hydraulic Efficiency of Artificial Wetlands Proceeds of the 30th IAHR Congress, Greece.
Jorgensen, S. E. 1988. Fundamentals of ecological modeling, Amsterdam, Elservier.
Jørgensen, S. E. and Bendoricchio, G., 2001. Fundamentals of ecological modelling (Vol. 21). Elsevier.
Kadlec, R. H., 2000. The inadequacy of first-order treatment wetland models. Ecological Engineering, 15(1-2), pp. 105-119.
Kumar, J. L. G., and Zhao, Y. Q. 2011. A review of numerous modeling approaches for effective, economic and ecological treatment wetlands, Journal of Environmental Management, 92, pp. 400-406.
Langergraber, G., and Simunek, J. 2005. Modeling Variably Saturated Water Flow and Multicomponent Reactive Transport in Constructed Wetlands. Vadose Zone, Jouurnal, 4, pp. 924-938.
Langergraber, G. 2007. Simulation of Treatment Performance of outdoor Sub-surface flow constructed wetlands in temperate climates. Science of the total Environment, 380, Elservier, pp. 210-219.
Langergraber, G., and Simunek, J. 2011. Software package for simulating a two and three dimensional movement of water, Heat and Multiple Solutes in Variably Saturated Media. PC-Progress, Prague, Czech Republic.
Langergraber, G. 2011. Numerical modeling: A tool for better constructed wetland design? Water Science Technology, 64(1), pp. 14-21.
Langergraber, G. 2001. Development of a simulation tool for subsurface flow constructed wetlands. Wiener Mitteilungen 169, Vienna, Austria (ISBN 3-85234-060-8).
Toscano, A., Langergraber, G., Consoli, S., & Cirelli, G. L. 2009. Modelling pollutant removal in a pilot-scale two-stage subsurface flow constructed wetlands. Ecological Engineering, 35(2), pp. 281-289.
Mitchell, C., and McNevin, D. 2001. Kinetic analysis of BOD and solids removal in subsurface flow constructed wetlands. Water Research, 35(5), pp. 1295-1303.
Otieno, A. O., Karuku, G. N., Raude, J. M. and Koech, O., 2017. Effectiveness of the Horizontal, Vertical and Hybrid Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland Systems in Polishing Municipal Wastewater. Environmental Management and Sustainable Development, 6(2), pp. 158-173.
Persson, J., Somes, N. L. G., and Wong, T. H. F. 1999. Hydraulic Efficiency of Constructed Wetlands and Ponds, Water Science Technology, 40 (3), pp. 291-300.
Rousseau, D., Vanrolleghem, P., and DePauw N. 2004. Model-based design of horizontal subsurface flow constructed treatment wetlands: a review, Water Resources, 38(6), pp. 1484-1493.
Simunek, J., Sejna, M., and van Genuchten, M. Th. 2011. The HYDRUS Software Package for Simulating the Two-and Three-Dimensional Movement of Water, Heat, and Multiple Solutes in a Variably-Saturated Media, Technical Manual, Version 2.0. PC-Progress. Prague. Czech Republic.
Simunek, J., Senja, M., and van Genuchten M. Th. 1999. HYDRUS-2D software package for simulating two-dimensional movement of water, heat, and multiple solutes in variably saturated media. Version 2.0. IGWMC-TPS-53. International Ground Water Center, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado, USA.
Tuncsiper, B., Ayaz, S. P., and Akca, L. 2006. Modelling and evaluation of nitrogen removal performance in subsurface flow and free water surface constructed wetlands, Water science and Technology, 53(12), pp. 111-120.
Toscano, A., Langergraber, G., Consoli, S., and Cirelli, G. L. 2006. Modeling pollutant removal in a pilot scale two stage subsurface flow constructed wetlands. Ecological Engineering, 35(2), pp.281-289.
van Genuchten, M. Th. 1980. A closed form equation for predicting the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated soils. Soil Science Society of America (44), pp. 892-898.
Vogel, T. and Cislerova, M., 1988. On the reliability of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity calculated from the moisture retention curve. Transport in porous media, 3(1), pp. 1-15.
Werner, T. M., and Kadlec, R. H. 2000. Wetland Residence Time Distribution Modeling, Ecological Engineering, 15, pp. 77-90.
Xuan, Z., Chang, Ni-Bin., Daranpob, A., and Wanielista, M. 2010. Modeling subsurface upflow wetlands systems for wastewater effluent treatment, Environmental engineering science, 27, (10), pp. 879-888.
Zhao, X., Hu, Y., Zhao, Y. and Kumar, L., 2018. Achieving an extraordinary high organic and hydraulic loadings with good performance via an alternative operation strategy in a multi-stage constructed wetland system. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, pp. 1-13.