Susceptibility Status of Bemisia tabaci Biotypes to Pyrethroid Insecticides in North-Eastern Nigeria
International Journal of Ecotoxicology and Ecobiology
Volume 3, Issue 1, March 2018, Pages: 5-10
Received: Dec. 14, 2017; Accepted: Dec. 28, 2017; Published: Jan. 15, 2018
Views 1626      Downloads 81
Usman Ngamarju Gadzama, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria
Chinweoke Edith Anaso, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria
Joy Mbaya Turaki, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria
Zakariya Dauda, Department of Crop Protection, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
A study was conducted to assess the effect of treatments with the recommended application rate of α-Cypermethrin, Permethrin, Allethrin, Tetramethrin, Cyhalothrin and Deltamethrin pesticides on Bemisia tabaci biotypes. Two localities each were selected from three States of North-eastern Nigeria for sample collections and determination of susceptibility to the insecticides. The localities include Toro and Wuro wasse in Bauchi State, College of Agric farm center (COAG) and Tudun wada in Borno State, Dadin kowa and Kwadon in Gombe State. The insecticides were applied against adult B. tabaci using a leaf-dip bioassay. Insect population that survived any of the insecticides after 24 hours post exposures were considered resistance to the insecticide and their biotypes were determined using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Overall mean mortality response was 88.89%, 91.27%, 88.09%, 96.83%, 93.65%, and 96.05 for α-Cypermethrin, Permethrin, Allethrin, Tetramethrin, Cyhallothrin and Deltamethrin respectively and all were significantly different from control (P<0.05). Populations from Kwadon showed high resistant factor to α-Cypermethrin, Tetramethrin and Cyahallothrin (RF = 221.99, 128.05 and 98.8-folds respectively). All populations displayed significant resistance to Allethrin (RF ranging from7.01-fold in Tudun wada to 78.93-fold in Kwadon. Tetramethrin resistant was followed by Dadin kowa and Tudun wada (RF = 13.43 and 13.33) respectively and Cyahallothrin resistant was followed by population from Dadin kowa (RF = 82.94-folds) while Deltamethrin resistant was found to be insignificant between almost all locations. Biotype B exhibited higher resistance for all the evaluated insecticides compared to Q in all locations.
Bemisia tabaci, Biotypes, Susceptible, Resistance, Pyrethroids, North-East Nigeria
To cite this article
Usman Ngamarju Gadzama, Chinweoke Edith Anaso, Joy Mbaya Turaki, Zakariya Dauda, Susceptibility Status of Bemisia tabaci Biotypes to Pyrethroid Insecticides in North-Eastern Nigeria, International Journal of Ecotoxicology and Ecobiology. Vol. 3, No. 1, 2018, pp. 5-10. doi: 10.11648/j.ijee.20180301.12
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Ahmad M., Arif M. I. and Attique M. R. (1997). Pyrethroid resistance of Helicoverpaarmiger (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Pakistan. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 87: 343–347
Armes N. J., Bond G. S. and Cooter R. J. (1992). Laboratory culture and development of Helicoverpa armigera. Natural Resources Institute, Natural Resources Institute Bulletin 5, Chatham, UK, 22.
Bues R., Bouvier J. C. and Boudinhon I. (2005). Insecticides resistance and mechanism of resistance to selected strains of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctiudae) to Nomuraea rileyi: effect of pathotype, dosage, temperature and host age. Journ. Econ. Entomol., 77: 247- 253
Cervera M. T., J. A. Cabezas B. Simon J. M. Martinez Zapater, F. Beitia and J. L. Cenis, (2000). Genetic relationships among biotypes of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) based on AFLP analysis. Bull. Entomol. Res., 90: 391-396.
Chu D., Wan F. H., Zhang Y. J and Brown J. K. (2010). Change in the biotype composition of Bemisa tabaci in Shandog Province of China. Environ. Entomol., 39: 1028-1036.
Dittrich V., Ernst G. H., Ruesh O. and Uk S. (1990). Resistance mechanisms in sweet-potato whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) populations from Sudan, Turkey, Guatemala and Nicaragua. Journ. Econ. Entomol. 83:1665 –1670.
Department Nigeria Metrological Agency (2013). Report series, 38.
Gunning R. V., Balfe M. E. and Easton C. S. (1992). Carbamate resistance in Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Australia. J. Austral. Entomol. Soci. 31: 97–102.
Horowitz A. R., Kontsedalov S., Khansdan V. and Ishaaya I. (2005). Biotype B and Q of Bemisia tabaci and their relevance to neonicotinoid and pyriproxyfen resistance. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol., 58: 216-225.
Horowitz A. R., Breslauer H., Rippa M., Kontsedalov S., Chanim M., Weintraub P. and Ishaaya I. (2014) Dynamic of Biotypes ‘B’ and ‘Q’ of Bemisia tabaci in cotton fields and their relevance to insecticide Resistance. World Cotton Research Conference on Technologies for Prosperity, 232- 238
Li A. Y., Dennehy T. J. and Nichols R. L. ( 2003). Baseline susceptibility and development of resistance to pyriproxyfen in Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in Arizona. J. Econ. Entomol. 96: 1307-1314.
Lima L. H. C., D. Navia, P. W. Inglis and M. R. V. De Oliveira (2000). Survey of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotypes in Brazil using RAPD markers. Genet. Mol. Biol., 23: 781-785.
McCaffery A. and Nauen R. (2006). The Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC): Public responsibility and enlightened industrial self-interest. Outlooks on Pest Management 2: 11-14.
Moya A., P. Guirao, D. Cifuentis, F. Beitia and J. L. Cenis (2001). Genetic diversity of Iberian populations of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) based on random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction. Mol. Ecol., 10: 891-897.
Nauen and Denholm I. (2005). Resistance of insect pests to neonicotinoid insecticides: current status and future prospects. Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol. 58: 200-215.
Perring T. M. (2001). The Bemisia tabaci species complex. Crop protec. 20: 725-737.
Prabhaker N., Toscano N. C., Castle S. J. and Henneberry T. J. (1997). Selection for imidacloprid resistance in silver leaf whiteflies from the Imperial Valley and development of a hydroponic bioassay for resistance monitoring. Pesticide Science 51: 419-428.
Tsagkarakou A. and N. Roditakis (2003). Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), Mol. Ecol. Notes, 3: 196-198.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186