Please enter verification code
Ultimate Biodegradation of Industrial Detergent Used in the Upstream Sector of the Nigeria Petroleum Industry in Freshwater, Brackish and Marine Water
International Journal of Ecotoxicology and Ecobiology
Volume 2, Issue 4, December 2017, Pages: 134-144
Received: May 19, 2017; Accepted: Jun. 22, 2017; Published: Sep. 22, 2017
Views 2109      Downloads 136
Renner Renner Nrior, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Lucky Odokuma, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Elizabeth Tete, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
Ultimate biodegradability of Industrial detergent; Teepol and Gamazyme used in the upstream sector of the Nigeria petroleum industry were investigated in fresh, brackish and marine water systems. The methodology of ultimate biodegradability estimated from the ratio of Biochemical Oxygen Demand to Chemical Oxygen Demand was used to determine biodegradability. Evaluation of percentage (%) ultimate biodegradation at day 20; showed T-pol (71.2%) to be more biodegradable in brackish water system while Gamazyme (31.1%) in fresh water system is least. Comparatively, biodegradability potential of the Industrial detergents in the tri-aquatic systems were; Fresh water system: T-pol (46.6%) >Gamazyme (31.1%). Brackish water system: Gamazyme BTC (73.1%) > T-pol (71.2%). Marine water system: T-pol (55.6%) >Gamazyme (44.7%). Industrial detergent utilizing bacteria genera isolated and their frequency were; Pseudomonas 35.7%, Bacillus 30.7%, Micrococcus 15.4% and Enterobacter 15.4% while fungi genera were; Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopusand Mucor. Conclusively, the study showed that Industrial detergent Gamazyme BTC had a very low biodegradation potential in fresh and marine water environment especially in fresh water. Based on these findings; the use of Industrial detergent Gamazyme should be with high caution or discontinued in the upstream sector of the Nigeria Petroleum Industry.
Ultimate Biodegradation, Industrial Detergent, Teepol, Gamazyme, Marine Water, Brackish Water, Freshwater, Pseudomonas sp, Bacillus sp
To cite this article
Renner Renner Nrior, Lucky Odokuma, Elizabeth Tete, Ultimate Biodegradation of Industrial Detergent Used in the Upstream Sector of the Nigeria Petroleum Industry in Freshwater, Brackish and Marine Water, International Journal of Ecotoxicology and Ecobiology. Vol. 2, No. 4, 2017, pp. 134-144. doi: 10.11648/j.ijee.20170204.11
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Amund, O. O., Ilori, M. O. andOdetunde, F. R. (1997). Degradation of CommercialDetergent products by microbial populations of the Lagos lagoon. Folia Microbiol. 42(4): 353-356.
APHA, (1998). Standard Method for the Examination of Waste Water and Water. American Public Health Association. 19th Ed. Washington D.C.
Bren, A. andEisenbach, M. (2000). How signals are heard during bacterialchemotaxis: protein-protein interactions in sensory signal propagation. Journal of Bacteriology. 182: 6865-6873.
Fuhrman, J. A. (1999). Marine Viruses and their biogeochemical and Ecological Effects. Nature 399:541-548.
Holding, B. V. (2005). Detergents occurring in freshwater.
Lawson, R. J. and Payne, A. G., (1980). Fate of the Benzene, Ring of Linear Alkyl BenzeneSolphonate in Natural Waters. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 41:21-22.
Nigeria Environmental Study Action Team (NEST, 1991). Nigerians threatened environment: A nottems profile: pp 84-88. A NEST Publication, Ibadan, Nigeria.
Nrior, R. R. and Odokuma L. O. (2015) Ultimate Biodegradability potential of Trichloroethylene (TCE) used as Degreaser in marine, brackish and fresh water Journal of Environmental Sciences, Toxicology and Food Technology (IOSR-JESTET) www.iosrjournals.org9:80-89. doi: 10.9790/2402-09728089
Nrior R. R. and Wosa C. (2016) Biodegradation of oil spill dispersant in brackish water ecosystem of the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Journal of International Society of Comparative Education, Science and Technology (ICEST) 3(1):187-201
Ogbulie T. E., Ogbulie J. N., and Umezurulke J. (2008) Biodegradation of Detergents by aquatic bacterial flora from Otamiri River, Nigeria. African Journal of Biotech 7(6) 824-830.
Okpokwasili, G. C. and Nwabuzor, C. N. (1988). Primary Biodegradation ofAniomic Surfactants in Laundry Detergents. Chemosphere 17: 2175 -2182.
Okpokwasili, G. C. andNnubia, C. (1995). Effects of oil spill dispersants and drilling fluids on substrate specificity of marine bacteria, Waste. Manage. 7:515-520.
Okpokwasili, G. C andOdokuma, L. O. (1990). Effect of Salinity on Biodegradation of oil Spill Dispersant, Waste. Manage. 10:141-146.
Okpokwasili, G. C. andOlisa AO (1991). River-Water Biodegradation of Surfactants in Liquid Detergents and Shampoos. Water Res., 25:1425-1429.
Okpokwasili, G. O. andOlisa, A. O. (1991). River water biodegradability of surfactants in liquid detergent and shampoos. Water Res. 25: 1425-1429.
Olusola, A. O. and Benjamin A. A. (2009). Biodegradation of synthetic detergents in wastewater. African Journal of Biotech 8(6) 1090-1109.
Prescott, L. M., Harley, J. and Klein, D. A. (2011). Microbiology fifth edition McGraw-Hill Companies.
Spain, J. C. and Van Veld, P. A. (1983). Adaptation of natural microbialcommunities to degradation of xenobiotic compounds: effects ofconcentration, exposure, time, inoculum and chemical structure. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 45: 428-435.
Swisher, R. D. (1987). Surfactant Biodegradation. 2nd ed. Marcel Dekker, New York. USA, pp. 130-142.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186