Please enter verification code
Confirm
Lemongrass Leaf Extract Attenuates Hydrocarbon-Induced Oxidative Stress and Macrocytic Hypochromic Anaemia in Rats
International Journal of Ecotoxicology and Ecobiology
Volume 2, Issue 2, June 2017, Pages: 74-79
Received: May 5, 2017; Accepted: Jun. 3, 2017; Published: Jul. 21, 2017
Views 1745      Downloads 119
Author
Christopher Ekpenyong, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
The therapeutic use of medicinal plants and plant products to mitigate solvent/xenobiotic-induced haematological disorders has not been adequately explored. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Cymbopogon citratus (C. citratus) leaf decoctions on gasoline vapour (GV)-induced haematological disorders and oxidative stress in rats. Seventy-two female rats weighing 180-200g were randomly selected and divided into six groups (n = 12 per group). Animals in group 1 served as unexposed controls, while animals in group 2 were exposed to gasoline vapour (GV) alone for 35 days. Animals in groups 3, 4, and 5 were exposed to GV and co-administered C. citratus leaf extract (500 mg/kg, 1000 mg/kg, and 1500 mg/kg, respectively), and animals in group 6 were exposed to GV and co-administered vitamin C (200 mg/kg) for the same time period. Exposure of animals to GV alone significantly (p < 0.05) decreased packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin concentration (HB), total red blood cells (RBC), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH) and mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC). Total white blood cells (WBC), WBC lineages and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels significantly increased (p < 0.05) compared to the corresponding values in the control group. Supplementation with C. citratus leaf decoction and vitamin C reversed these GV-induced changes in haematological indices and MDA levels. Therefore, C. citratus leaf decoctions and vitamin C supplementation provided an ameliorative effect on GV-induced haematotoxicity and oxidative stress in a rat model of gasoline exposure.
Keywords
Lemongrass, Gasoline Fumes, Haematotoxicity, Amelioration, Rat
To cite this article
Christopher Ekpenyong, Lemongrass Leaf Extract Attenuates Hydrocarbon-Induced Oxidative Stress and Macrocytic Hypochromic Anaemia in Rats, International Journal of Ecotoxicology and Ecobiology. Vol. 2, No. 2, 2017, pp. 74-79. doi: 10.11648/j.ijee.20170202.13
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
Ekpenyong, C. E., Asuquo, A. E. Recent advances in occupational and environmental health hazards of workers exposed to gasoline compounds: toxicology review. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2017, 30, 1-26. https://doi.org/10.13075/ijomeh.1896.00800.
[2]
Yoon, B., Hirabayashi, Y., Kawasaki, Y., Kodama, Y., Kaneko, T., Kim, A.Y, et al. Mechanism of action of benzene toxicity: cell cycle suppression in hematopoietic progenitor cell (CFU-GM). Exp Hematol. 2001, 29, 278-285.
[3]
Udonwa, N. E., Uko, E. K., Ikpeme, B. M., Ibanga, I. A., Okon, B. O. Exposure of petrol station attendants and auto mechanics to premium motor spirit fumes in Calabar, Nigeria. J Environ Public Health. 2009. dx.doi.org/10.1155/2009/281876 Accessed: 28/12/2014.
[4]
Qu, Q., Shore, R., Li, G., Jin, X., Chen, L. C., Cohen, B., et al. Hematological changes among Chinese worker with a broad range of benzene exposures. Am J Ind Med. 2002, 42, 275-285.
[5]
Okoro, A. M., Ani, E. J., Ibu, J. O., Akpogomeh, B. O. Effect of petroleum products inhalation on some haematological indices of fuel attendants in Calaber Metropolis, Nigeria. Nig J Physiol Sci. 2006, 21, 71-75.
[6]
Sahb, A. A. A. Hematological assessment of gasoline exposure among petrol filling workers in Baghdad. J Fac Med Baghdad. 2011, 53, 396-400.
[7]
Tunsaringkarn, T., Soogarun, S., Palasuwa, A. Occupational exposure to benzene and changes in hematological parameters and urinary trans, trans-muconic acid. Int J Occup Environ. 2013, 4, 45-49.
[8]
Sedky, A., Elsawy, H. Protective effect of vitamin C and E against gasoline vapours induced heamatological and biochemical changes in male rats. J Scientific Res. 2015, 7, 139-149.
[9]
Ndhlala, A. R., Moyo, M., Van Staden, J. Natural antioxidants: fascinating or mythical biomolecules? Mol. 2010, 15, 6905-6930.
[10]
Ekpenyong, C. E., Daniel, N. E., Antai, A. B. Bioactive natural constituents from lemongrass tea and erythropoiesis boosting effects: potential use in prevention and treatment of anemia. J Medicinal Food. 2015, 18, 118-127.
[11]
Wannissorn, B., Jarikasem, S., Siriwangchai, T., Thubthimthed, S. Anti-bacterial properties of essential oils from Thai medicinal plants. Fitoterapia. 2005, 76, 233-236.
[12]
Puatonachokchai, R., Kishida, H., Denda, A., Murata, N., Konishi, Y., Vinitketkumnuen, U. Inhibitory effects of lemon grass (Cymbogon citratus, stapf) extract on the early phase of hepatocarcinogenesis after initiation with diethylnitrosamine in male Fischer 344 rats. Cancer Lett. 2002, 183, 9-15.
[13]
Abe, S., Maruyama, N., Hayama, K., Inouye, S., Oshima, F., Yamaguchi, H. Suppression of neutrophil recruitment in mice by geranium essential oil. Mediators Inflamm. 2004, 13:21-24.
[14]
Masuda, T., Odaka, Y., Ogawa, N., Nakamoto, K., Kuninaga, H. Identification of geranic acid, a tyrosinase inhibitor in lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus). J Agric Food Chem. 2008, 56, 597-601.
[15]
Koh, P. H., Mokhtar, R. A. M., Iqbal, M. Antioxidant potential of Cymbopogon citratus extracts alleviation of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic oxidative stress and toxicity. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2012, 31, 81-91.
[16]
Trease, G. E., Evans, W. C. A Textbook of Pharmacognosy. 13th Ed., Blaire, Tindall, London, Pp.100-101, 1989.
[17]
Sofowora, A. ”Medicinal plant and traditional medicine in Africa”, 2nd Ed., Spectrum Books Ltd, Ibadan, Nigeria. Pp 289, 1993.
[18]
Ekpenyong, C. E., Davies, K., Antai, E. E. Cymbopogon citratus Stapf (Dc) extract ameliorates atherogenic cardiovascular risk in diabetes-induced dyslipidemia in rats. Br J Med Medical Res, 2014, 4, 4695-4709.
[19]
Lorke, D. A new approach to practical acute toxicity testing. Arch Toxicol. 1983, 53, 275-287.
[20]
Ekpenyong, C. E., Akpan, E. E., Udo, N. S. Phytochemistry and toxicity studies of Telferia Occidentalis aqueous leaves extracts on liver biochemical indices in wistar rats. Am J Med Sci. 2012, 2, 103-110.
[21]
Uboh, F., Ebong, P., Udosen, E. Effect of vitamin C on Gasoline vapor induced reproductive toxicity in female rats. Turk Jem. 2010, 14, 26-30.
[22]
Yardley-Jones, A., Anderson, D., Parke, D. V. The toxicity of benzene and its metabolism and molecular pathology in human risk assessment. Br J Ind Med. 1991, 48, 437-444.
[23]
Carletti, R., Romano, D. Assessing health risk from benzene pollution in an urban area. Environ Monit Assess. 2002, 80, 135–148.
[24]
Saeio, K., Chaiyana, W., Okonogi, S. Antityrosinase and antioxidant activities of essential oils of edible Thai plants. Drug Discov Ther, 2011, 5, 144-149.
[25]
Arhoghro, E. M., Kpomah, D. E., Uwakwe, A. A. Curative Potential of Aqueous Extract of Lemon Grass (Cymbopogon citratus) on Cisplatin Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Wistar Rats. J Phys Pharm Adv. 2012, 2, 282-294.
[26]
Rahim, S. M., Taha, E. M., Al-janabi, M. S., Al-douri, B. I., Simon, K. D., Mazian, A. G. Hepatoprotective effect of Cymbopogon citratus aqueous extract against hydrogen peroxide-induced liver injury in male rats. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2014, 11, 447-451.
[27]
Gayathri, K., Jayachandran, K. S., Vasanthi, H. R., Rajamanickam, G. V. Cardioprotective effect of lemongrass as evidenced by biochemical and histopathological changes in experimentally induced cardiotoxicity. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2011, 30, 1073–1082.
[28]
Wooden, M. A., Hauser, R., Liu, Y., Smith, T. J., Siegel, P. D., Lewis, D. M., Tollerud, D. J., Christiani, D. C. Molecular markers of acute upper airway inflammation in workers exposed to fuel-oil ash. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1998, 158, 182-187.
[29]
Grebic, D., Jakovac, H., Mrakovcic-Sutic, I., Tomac, J., Bulog, A., Micovic, V., Radosevic-Stastic, B. Short-term exposure of mice to gasoline vapor increases the metallothion expression in the brain, lungs and kidney. Histol Histopathol. 2007, 22, 593-601.
[30]
Carbajal, D. E., Casaco, L., ArruzaZabala, L., Gonzalez, R., Tolon, Z. Pharmacological study of Cymbopogon citratus leaves. J Ethnopharmacol. 1998, 25, 103-107.
[31]
Gbenou, J. D., Ahounou, J. F., Akakpo, H. B., Laleye, A., Yaji, E., Gbaguidi, F., Baba-Moussa, L., Barboux, R., Danson, P., Moudachiron, M., Kotchoni, S. O. Phytochemical composition of cymbopogon citratus and eucalyptus citriodora essential oils and their anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties on Wister rats. Mol Biol Rep. 2012. doi 10.1007/sii033-012-2155-1.
[32]
Abena, A. A., Gbenou, I. D., Yayi, E., Moudachirou, M., Ongoke, R. P., Ouamba, J. M., Silou, T. Comparative chemical and analysis properties of essential oil of Cymbopogon nardus (L) Rendle of Benin and Congo. Afri J Tradit Compement Altern Med. 2007, 4, 267-272.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186