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Limbs Asymmetry as Biomarker in the Egyptian Toad Amietophrynus regularis Exposed to Atrazine and Nitrates
International Journal of Ecotoxicology and Ecobiology
Volume 1, Issue 3, December 2016, Pages: 103-110
Received: Oct. 31, 2016; Accepted: Nov. 17, 2016; Published: Dec. 17, 2016
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Samy A. Saber, Departmentof Zoology, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt
Boshra A. ElSalkh, Departmentof Zoology, Faculty of Science (Girls), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt
Aml S. Said, Departmentof Zoology, Faculty of Science (Girls), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt
Rashad E. M. Said, Departmentof Zoology, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Assiut, Egypt
Ali G. Gadel-Rab, Departmentof Zoology, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Assiut, Egypt
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Many amphibians occupy appositional roles between different animal taxa; despite this, many species are threatened with decline and extinction. Several and different contributors and factors were previously reviewed to contribute amphibian disappearance. Between those factors are chemical pollution, heavy metals, climate change, disease, etc. The most commonly used index of developmental instability is fluctuating asymmetry (FA), as a feature of environmental impact was also reviewed. F.A is the variance in right minus left values of bilaterally symmetrical structures. The results indicate that individuals exposed to atrazine or that exposed to both atrazine and nitrate exhibit a significantly higher degree of FA (p<0.01) while FA measured in individuals treated only with nitrate was not significant (p<0.05) These results constitute the first assessment of FA in this species in Egypt and suggest that the degree of FA in skeletal traits cane be a useful indicator of the degree of environmental stress experienced by amphibian populations.
Amietophrynus regularis, Atrazine, Nitrates, Fluctuating Asymmetry
To cite this article
Samy A. Saber, Boshra A. ElSalkh, Aml S. Said, Rashad E. M. Said, Ali G. Gadel-Rab, Limbs Asymmetry as Biomarker in the Egyptian Toad Amietophrynus regularis Exposed to Atrazine and Nitrates, International Journal of Ecotoxicology and Ecobiology. Vol. 1, No. 3, 2016, pp. 103-110. doi: 10.11648/j.ijee.20160103.17
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This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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