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Haemotoxic and Genotoxic Potential of Lead on the Egyptian Toad Amietophrynus regularis
International Journal of Ecotoxicology and Ecobiology
Volume 1, Issue 3, December 2016, Pages: 94-102
Received: Oct. 14, 2016; Accepted: Nov. 17, 2016; Published: Dec. 17, 2016
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Rashad E. M. Said, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Assiut, Egypt
Samy A. Saber, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt
Alaa G. M. Osman, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Assiut, Egypt
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Many populations of amphibians are declining on all six continents on which they occur. The reason for the declines is a direct response to the habitat destruction and pollution including heavy metals. Heavy metals represent a major environmental problem of increasing concern. They are generally found at very low concentrations. They are difficult to remove from the environment and cannot be chemically or biologically degraded. Some heavy metals like lead seem to lack biological functions and extremely toxic even at low concentrations. This study was aimed to investigate the haemotoxic and genotoxic potential of lead using blood parameters, the frequencies of micronuclei, and nuclear lesions in erythrocytes of Egyptian Toad Amietophrynus regularis as biomarkers. The results of this work revealed that Pb was potentially accumulated in liver and muscles based on dose received. Toad exposed to the selected doses of lead produced dose – dependent significant increases in the concentration of lead in the liver and muscle, confirming the ability of Amietophrynus regularis to take up and accumulate heavy metals from their ambient habitat. The results of the present investigation showed that the lead treatment inflicted a drastic reduction in the means of RBCs, haemoglobin, and haematocrit values in addition to remarkable increase in WBCs, impairing the major blood parameters in this investigation. Correlation analysis has demonstrated a negative effect of Pb accumulation on RBCs count, haemoglobin, and haematocrit. Oppositely, Pb in muscles and liver exhibited a positive effect in WBCs count. In this study, higher incidences of micronuclei (MN) and nuclear lesions (NL) were found in the blood of toad exposed to lead doses. Such frequencies were significantly elevated with the increasing lead doses. A positive correlation was demonstrated between the investigated heavy metals in tissues and the induction of micronucleated RBCs and nuclear abnormalities in Amietophrynus regularis. The results of this study confirm the usefulness of the erythrocyte MN and NL as powerful monitoring tools for detecting genotoxic agents in aquatic and terrestrial environment.
Amietophrynus regularis, Lead, Biomarkers, Heavy Metals, Genotoxicity, Micronuclei, Nuclear Lesions
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Rashad E. M. Said, Samy A. Saber, Alaa G. M. Osman, Haemotoxic and Genotoxic Potential of Lead on the Egyptian Toad Amietophrynus regularis, International Journal of Ecotoxicology and Ecobiology. Vol. 1, No. 3, 2016, pp. 94-102. doi: 10.11648/j.ijee.20160103.16
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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