Heavy Metals Levels in the Blood of Oreochromis niloticus niloticus and Clarias gariepinus as Biomarkers of Metal Pollution in the River Nile
International Journal of Ecotoxicology and Ecobiology
Volume 1, Issue 1, June 2016, Pages: 1-12
Received: May 24, 2016; Accepted: Jun. 3, 2016; Published: Jun. 20, 2016
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Authors
Khaled Youssef AbouelFadl, Department of Aquatic Ecology, Faculty of Fish and Fisheries Technology, Aswan University, Aswan, Egypt
Walid Aly, Fisheries Department, National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries (NIOF), Cairo, Egypt
Abd-El-Baset Abd El – Reheem, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University (Assiut Branch), Assiut, Egypt
Usama M. Mahmoud, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Assuit University, Assiut, Egypt
Heba S. Hamed, Zoology Department, Faculty of women for Arts, Science & Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
Mohsen A. Moustafa, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University (Assiut Branch), Assiut, Egypt
Alaa G. M. Osman, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University (Assiut Branch), Assiut, Egypt
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Abstract
A combination of biological monitoring (Biomonitoring) and measurements of water and sediment quality can provide a good indication of conditions and potential risks to any water body, which is an essential step in the development of efficient decision support tools for environmental managers. This study was carried out to investigate the possibility of using blood metal concentrations of two fish species Oreochromis niloticus niloticus and Clarias gariepinus as biomarkers of metal pollution, for the first time, to evaluate the health of the River Nile environment. Water, sediment and fish samples were collected seasonally from eighteen different sampling points, representing six different sites (three points from each site) along the whole course of the River Nile in Egypt. The present result concluded higher mean concentrations of nearly all the detected heavy metals in water and sediment samples collected from sampling sites downstream River Nile (polluted sites) compared to those collected from upstream river. The mean concentrations of all the detected metals were significantly (P<0.05) higher in the blood of fish collected from the polluted sites. Pb and Cd in blood serum collected from O. niloticus niloticus were significantly correlated (P<0.05) with corresponding levels in water and sediment samples collected from same sites. Likewise, Pb in blood serum collected from Clarias gariepinus was significantly correlated (P<0.05) with corresponding Pb in water and sediment samples collected from same sites, while Cr and Zn were significantly correlated only with sediment collected from same study sites. The results revealed species specific different sensitivities, suggesting that Nile tilapia may serve as a more sensitive test species compared to the African catfish. These results indicate that the blood metal concentrations of the selected species are adequate biomarkers of metal pollution and could be included in monitoring programmes to indicate the response of such animals to metal pollution.
Keywords
Biomonitoring, Blood Metal, Sediment, water
To cite this article
Khaled Youssef AbouelFadl, Walid Aly, Abd-El-Baset Abd El – Reheem, Usama M. Mahmoud, Heba S. Hamed, Mohsen A. Moustafa, Alaa G. M. Osman, Heavy Metals Levels in the Blood of Oreochromis niloticus niloticus and Clarias gariepinus as Biomarkers of Metal Pollution in the River Nile, International Journal of Ecotoxicology and Ecobiology. Vol. 1, No. 1, 2016, pp. 1-12. doi: 10.11648/j.ijee.20160101.11
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Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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