International Journal of Ecotoxicology and Ecobiology
Volume 1, Issue 1, June 2016, Pages: 1-12
Received: May 24, 2016;
Accepted: Jun. 3, 2016;
Published: Jun. 20, 2016
Views 3202 Downloads 101
Khaled Youssef AbouelFadl, Department of Aquatic Ecology, Faculty of Fish and Fisheries Technology, Aswan University, Aswan, Egypt
Walid Aly, Fisheries Department, National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries (NIOF), Cairo, Egypt
Abd-El-Baset Abd El – Reheem, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University (Assiut Branch), Assiut, Egypt
Usama M. Mahmoud, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Assuit University, Assiut, Egypt
Heba S. Hamed, Zoology Department, Faculty of women for Arts, Science & Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
Mohsen A. Moustafa, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University (Assiut Branch), Assiut, Egypt
Alaa G. M. Osman, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University (Assiut Branch), Assiut, Egypt
A combination of biological monitoring (Biomonitoring) and measurements of water and sediment quality can provide a good indication of conditions and potential risks to any water body, which is an essential step in the development of efficient decision support tools for environmental managers. This study was carried out to investigate the possibility of using blood metal concentrations of two fish species Oreochromis niloticus niloticus and Clarias gariepinus as biomarkers of metal pollution, for the first time, to evaluate the health of the River Nile environment. Water, sediment and fish samples were collected seasonally from eighteen different sampling points, representing six different sites (three points from each site) along the whole course of the River Nile in Egypt. The present result concluded higher mean concentrations of nearly all the detected heavy metals in water and sediment samples collected from sampling sites downstream River Nile (polluted sites) compared to those collected from upstream river. The mean concentrations of all the detected metals were significantly (P<0.05) higher in the blood of fish collected from the polluted sites. Pb and Cd in blood serum collected from O. niloticus niloticus were significantly correlated (P<0.05) with corresponding levels in water and sediment samples collected from same sites. Likewise, Pb in blood serum collected from Clarias gariepinus was significantly correlated (P<0.05) with corresponding Pb in water and sediment samples collected from same sites, while Cr and Zn were significantly correlated only with sediment collected from same study sites. The results revealed species specific different sensitivities, suggesting that Nile tilapia may serve as a more sensitive test species compared to the African catfish. These results indicate that the blood metal concentrations of the selected species are adequate biomarkers of metal pollution and could be included in monitoring programmes to indicate the response of such animals to metal pollution.
Khaled Youssef AbouelFadl,
Abd-El-Baset Abd El – Reheem,
Usama M. Mahmoud,
Heba S. Hamed,
Mohsen A. Moustafa,
Alaa G. M. Osman,
Heavy Metals Levels in the Blood of Oreochromis niloticus niloticus and Clarias gariepinus as Biomarkers of Metal Pollution in the River Nile, International Journal of Ecotoxicology and Ecobiology.
Vol. 1, No. 1,
2016, pp. 1-12.
Canli, M. and R. Furness, Toxicity of heavy metals dissolved in sea water and influences of sex and size on metal accumulation and tissue distribution in the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus. Mar Environ Res, 1993. 36: p. 217-236.
Mohiuddin, K.M., et al., Heavy metals contamination in water and sediments of an urban river in a developing country. International Journal of Environmental Science & Technology, 2011. 8(4): p. 723-736.
Mohiuddin, K.M., et al., Geochemical distribution of trace metal pollutants in water and sediments of downstream of an urban river. International Journal of Environmental Science & Technology, 2010. 7(1): p. 17-28.
Harikumar, P.S., U.P. Nasir, and M.M. Rahman, Distribution of heavy metals in the core sediments of a tropical wetland system. International Journal of Environmental Science & Technology, 2009. 6(2): p. 225-232.
Dassenakis, M., et al., Effects of multiple source pollution on a small Mediterranean river. Applied Geochemistry, 1998. 13(2): p. 197-211.
Abdel-Ghani, N.T. and G.A. Elchaghaby, Influence of operating conditions on the removal of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb ions from wastewater by adsorption. International Journal of Environmental Science & Technology, 2007. 4(4): p. 451-456.
Nouri, J., et al., Phytoremediation potential of native plants grown in the vicinity of Ahangaran lead–zinc mine (Hamedan, Iran). Environmental Earth Sciences, 2011. 62(3): p. 639-644.
Nwuche, C.O. and E.O. Ugoji, Effects of heavy metal pollution on the soil microbial activity. International Journal of Environmental Science & Technology, 2008. 5(3): p. 409-414.
Osman, A., et al., In situ evaluation of the genotoxic potential of the river Nile: I.Micronucleus and nuclear lesion tests of erythrocytes of Oreochromis niloticus niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822). Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry, 2011. 93(5): p. 1002-1017.
Anwar, W.A., Environmental health in Egypt. International journal of hygiene and environmental health, 2003. 206(4-5): p. 339-50.
Mohamed, M., et al., Lead and cadmium in Nile River water and finished drinking water in greater Cairo, Egypt. Environment international, 1998. 24(7): p. 767-772.
Hart, K., Using the Ilizarov external fixator in bone transport. Orthopaedic nursing / National Association of Orthopaedic Nurses, 1994. 13(1): p. 35-40.
Kennish, M.J., Ecology of Estuaries : anthropogenic effects. CRC Press : Boca Raton. 1992.
Osman, A.G.M. and W. Kloas, Biomarker Responses in Fishes: Atool for Monitoring Water Quallity of the River Nile. one frist Edition ed. 2012, Gottingen, Germany: German national bibliography. pp 80.
Al-Sabti, K. and C. Metcalfe, Fish micronuclei for assessing genotoxicity in water. Mutat Res, 1995. 343: p. 121-135.
Minissi, S., E. Ciccotti, and M. Rizzoni, Micronucleus test in erythrocytes of Barbus plebejus (Teleostei, Pisces) from two natural environments: a bioassay for the in situ detection of mutagens in freshwater. Mutation Research, 1996. 367(4): p. 245-51.
Klobucar, G., et al., Genotoxicity monitoring of freshwater environments using caged carp (Cyprinus carpio). Ecotoxicology (London, England), 2010. 19(1): p. 77-84.
Köck, G., M. Triendl, and R. Hofer, Seasonal patterns of metal accumulation in Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) from an oligotrophic Alpine lake related to temperature. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 1996. 53(4): p. 780-786.
Garcia-Abiado, M., M. Penn, and K. Dabrowski, Case study on eye abnormalities in tank-reared hybrid walleyes (Sander vitreus x S. canadensis). Aquaculture Research, 2006. 37(5): p. 443-448.
Patin, S.A., Tilapia as a bio-assay organism in toxicological studies Biogeochemical and toxicological studies of water pollution. Moskva (USSAR):Vniro, 1984: p. pp.39-46.
Gadagbui, B.K.M., M. Addy, and A. Goksoyr, Species characteristics of hepatic biotransformation enzymes in two tropical freshwater teleosts, tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and mudfish (Clarias anguillaris). Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 1996. 114(C): p. 201-211.
El-Sayed, A.F.M., Tilapia culture. 2006, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom: CABI publishing,CABI International Willingford.
Nguyen, L.T.H. and C.R. Janssen, Embryo-larval toxicity tests with the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus): comparative sensitivity of endpoints. Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology, 2002. 42(2): p. 256-62.
Karami, A., et al., Effect of triploidization on juvenile African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Aquaculture International, 2010. 18: p. 851–858.
Mekkawy, I., et al., Effects of cadmium on some haematological and biochemical characteristics of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) dietary supplemented with tomato paste and vitamin E.. Fish physiol. Biochem, 2010. 37: p. 71-84.
Osman, A., et al., Lead induced malformations in embryos of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822). Environmental toxicology, 2007. 22(4): p. 375-89.
Baran, A. and M. Tarnawski, Mobility and toxicity of heavy metals in bottom sediments of Rybnik reservoir. In E3S Web of Conferences 2013. (Vol. 1, p. 33005). EDP Sciences.
Jackwerth, E. and M. Würfels, Der Druchaufsche B-Apparative Moglichkeiter, Problem and Anwendungen. 1994, pringer-Verlage, Berlin: S in M. Stoeppler (ed.), Probennahme and Aufschlu B 121 – 138.
Ezzat, A.A., M.B. Shabana, and A.M. Farghaly, Studies on the blood characteristic of Tilapia zilli (Gervais). J. of Fish Biol., 1974. 6: p. 1-12.
Hoffman, G.L., Methods for the diagnosis of fish discapet. Fish forming experiment station U.S.A. Fish and Wilt Fish Service Stattpart, Arkensap. 1977.
Ohlemiller, T., Smouldering combustion. In The SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering Volume Chapter l-23. Edited by: Dinenno PJ. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association. 1988: p. 352-359.
Osman, A.G.M. and W. Kloas, Water Quality and Heavy Metal Monitoring in Water, Sediments, and Tissues of the African Catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) from the River Nile, Egypt. Journal of Environmental Protection, 2010. 1: p. 389-400.
EEAA, Egypt State of Environment Report. 2005, Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency: Cairo, Egypt.
EEAA, Egypt State of Environment Report. 2006, Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency: Cairo, Egypt.
EEAA, Egypt State of Environment Report. 2007, Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency: Cairo, Egypt.
EEAA, Egypt State of Environment Report. 2010, Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency: Cairo, Egypt.
Elewa, A. and M. Gohar, Environmental factors affecting the precipitation and dissolution of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd in River Nile at Damietta Branch. Bull. Fac. Sci. Zagazig Univ, 1999. 21(2): p. 114-136.
Emam, A.M.K., Microbiological Study of the River Nile in Egypt, in Botany & Microbiology Department. 2011, Al-Azhar University, Assiut Branch: Assuit.
Abdel-Satar, A., Distribution of some chemical elements in River Nileenvironments at Great Cairo Region., in Ph D Thesis. 1998: Egypt.
Issa, Y., et al., Factors affecting the distribution of some major and minor elements in River Nile at Greater Cairo Area, Anal. Chem.,. 1997. 6 FG - 0: p. 58-68.
Mucha, A.P., M.T.S.D. Vasconcelos, and A.A. Bordalo, Macro benthic community in the Douro Estuary: relations with heavy metals and natural sediment characteristics. Environmental Pollution, 2003. 121: p. 169–180.
Henry, T.R., et al., Early life stage toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 1997. 142(1): p. 56-68.
Soares, H., et al., Sediments as monitors of heavy metal contamination in the Ave river basin (Portugal): multivariate analysis of data. Environmental Pollution 1999. 105: p. 31111–323.
Abdo, M., Environmental studies on the River Nile at Damietta Branch region, Egypt. J. Egypt. Soc Environ Developl Studies, 2004. 5(2): p. 85-104.
Facetti, J., V.M. Dekov, and R.V. Grieken, Science of the Total Environment. 1998. 209: p. 79–86.
Rossbach, S., et al., Cadmium-regulated gene fusions in Pseudomonas fluorescens. Environ. Microbiol., 2000. 2: p. 373-382.
Bruins, M., S. Kapil, and F. Oehme, Microbial resistance to metals in the environment. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf, 2000. 45: p. 198–207.
Adeyemo, O.K., O.B. Adedeji, and C.C. Offor, Blood lead level as biomarker of environmental lead pollution in feral and cultured African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Nigerian veterinary journal, 2010. 31(2).
Hussein, H., et al., Tolerance and uptake of heavy metals by Pseudomonads. Process Biochemistry, 2005. 40: p. 955–961.
Monteiro, S.M., et al., Copper induced alterations of biochemical parameters in the gill and plasma of Oreochoromis niloticus. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C: Pharmacol., 2005. 141: p. 375-383.
Heath, A., Water pollution and fish physiology. 1996, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla.: Lewis Publs.
Zikic, R.V., et al., Activities of Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase in Erythrocytes and Transaminases in the plasma of Carps (Cyprinus carpio L.) exposed to Cadmium. Physiol. Res., 1997. 46: p. 391-396.
Zikic, R.V., et al., Activities of Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase in Erythrocytes and Plasma Transaminases of Goldfish (Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch.) exposed to Cadmium. Physiol. Res., 2001. 50: p. 105-111.
Fırat, O. and F. Kargın, Individual and Combined Effects of Heavy Metals on Serum Biochemistry of Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 2010. 58: p. 151–157.