Please enter verification code
Oral Corrective Feedback and Its Impact on Learners’ Speaking Skills: Tunisian EFL Students as a Case Study
International Journal of Language and Linguistics
Volume 7, Issue 3, May 2019, Pages: 138-149
Received: Apr. 3, 2019; Accepted: May 11, 2019; Published: Jun. 12, 2019
Views 712      Downloads 192
Ounis Tesnim, English Department, Faculty of Letters and Humanities of Sfax, University of Sfax, Sfax, Tunisia
Article Tools
Follow on us
The present research paper tries to discover the effect of teachers’ oral corrective feedback (OCF) on EFL learners’ speaking skills (grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, and fluency). The study relies on the use of an experimental design and direct observations. 20 participants formed the experimental group. All subjects are intermediate foreign language learners of English (EFL). They are given an initial pre-test. Then, this experimental group undergoes intensive oral corrective feedback (mainly through prompts, recasts and explicit correction) delivered by their teacher during various oral activities. Finally, a post-test is applied. The analysis of the pre-test and post-test scores of the experimental group both quantitavely and qualitatively (using the MELA-Scoring Matrix) and the calculation of the mean rate of errors pre 100 words shows that learners’ progress in oral performances vary from one individual to another. The findings of this study reveal that immediate and explicit OCF was able to positively affect EFL learners’ grammatical development; yet, it was not helpful to ameliorate the learners’ utterances in terms of vocabulary, fluency and pronunciation.
Oral Corrective Feedback, Immediate Corrective Feedback, Intermediate EFL Learners, Speaking Skills
To cite this article
Ounis Tesnim, Oral Corrective Feedback and Its Impact on Learners’ Speaking Skills: Tunisian EFL Students as a Case Study, International Journal of Language and Linguistics. Vol. 7, No. 3, 2019, pp. 138-149. doi: 10.11648/j.ijll.20190703.15
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Brown, H. D. (2004). Language assessment: Principles and classroom practices. White Plains, NY: Pearson Education. Pp. 324
Chaudron, C. (1977). A descriptive model of discourse in the corrective treatment of learners’ errors. Language Learning, 27, 29–46.
White, L. (1991). Adverb placement in second language acquisition: Some effects of positive and negative evidence in the classroom. Second Language Research. 7, 133- 161.
Schwartz, B. (1993). On explicit and negative data effecting and affecting competence and linguistic behaviour. Second Language Research, 2, 120-1 59.
Truscott, J. (1999). What's wrong with oral grammar correction. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 55, 437-456.
Krashen, S. (1985). The input hypothesis: Issues and implications. London: Longman.
Mackey, A, Gass, S, & McDonough, K. (2000). How do learners perceive interactional feedback? Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 22 (4), 471-497.
Lyster, R. (2002). Negotiation in immersion teacher-student interaction. International Journal of Educational Research, 37, 237 – 253.
Loewen, S. (2004). Uptake in Incidental Focus on Form in Meaning‐Focused ESL Lessons. Language learning, 153-188.
Sheen, Y. (2004). Corrective feedback and learner uptake in communicative classrooms across instructional settings. Language Teaching Research, 8 (3), 263-300.
Hyland, K.& Hyland, F. (2006). Feedback on Second Language students’ writing. Language Teaching. 39 (2): 83-101.
Sheen, Y, & Ellis, R. (2011). Corrective feedback in language teaching. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning (Volume II, pp. 593-610). New York: Routledge.
Lyster, R, Saito, K, & Sato, M. (2013). Oral corrective feedback in second language classrooms. Language Teaching, 46 (1), 1-40.
Lightbown, P. M. and Spada, N. (1999). How languages are learned? (2ND edition). Oxford. Oxford University press.
Karbalaei, Alireza and Karimian, K. (2014). ‘On the Effect of Type of Teacher Corrective Feedback on Iranian EFL Learners’ Writing Performance’. Indian Journal. Sci. Res, 7 (1).
Calsiyao, S. (2015). ‘Corrective Feedback in Classroom Oral Errors among Kalinga- Apayao State College Students.’ International Journal of Social Science and Humanities Research, 3/1: 135
Mendez, E and Cruz, M. (2012). ‘Teachers’ Perceptions About Oral Corrective Feedback and Their Practice in EFL Classrooms.’ELT Journal, 14/2: 64.
Lyster, R and Ranta, L. (1997). ‘Oral Corrective Feedback and Student Uptake; Negotiation of Form in Communicative Classrooms.’SSLA. pp. 44- 55.
Lyster, R and Llinares, A. (2014). ‘The Influence of Context on Patterns of Corrective Feedback and Learner Uptake: a Comparison of CLIL and Immersion Classrooms.’ The Language Learning Journal, 42 (2).
Corder, P. (1967). The significance of learner's errors. International Review of Applied Linguistics, S, 161-170.
Burt, M. (1975). Error Analysis in the Adult EFL Classroom. TESOL Quarterly, 9 (1), 53-63. doi: 10.2307/3586012
Hendrickson, J. M. (1981). Error analysis and error correction in language teaching. Singapore: SEAMEO Regional Language Centre.
Long, M. H. (2006). Problems in SLA. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Seedhouse, P. (2004). The interactional architecture of the language classroom: A conversation analysis perspective. Malden, MA: Blackwell
Lyster, R. (2004). Differential effects of prompts and recasts in form-focused instruction. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 26, 399 – 432
Ellis, R, Loewen, S, & Erlam, R. (2006). Implicit and explicit corrective feedback and the acquisition of L2 grammar. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 28, 339-368
Harmer, J. (2001). The practice of English language teaching. Essex: Pearson Education Limited.
Richards, J. C, P. Tung & P. Ng. (1992). The culture of the English language teacher: a Hong Kong example. RELC Journal, 23 (1), 81−102.
Kyriacou, C. (1997). Effective Teaching in Schools, 2nd edition. Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes.
Bailey, K. M. (1983). Competitiveness and anxiety in adult second language learning: Looking at and through the diary studies. In: H. W. Seliger, & M. H. Long (Eds.), Classroom Oriented Research in Second Language Acquisition, pp. 67-102. Rowley: Newbury House.
Brown, H. D. (2001). Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy. New-York: Longman.
Brown, D. H. (2000). Principles of language learning & teaching. (4th ed.). New York: Longman. (pp. 49-58)
Skinner, B. F. (1979). The Shaping of a Behaviorist: Part Two of an Autobiography. New York: Random House.
Brown, G. T. L. (2011). Teachers' conceptions of assessment: Comparing primary and secondary teachers in New Zealand. Assessment Matters, 3, 45-70.
Gregerson, T. S. (2003). To Err Is Human: A Reminder to Teachers of Language‐Anxious Students. Foreign Language Annuls. Vol. 36. pp. 25-32.
Hedge, T. (2000). Teaching and learning in the language classroom. United Kingdom. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Doughty, C. (2001). Cognitive underpinnings of focus on form. In P. Robinson (Ed.), Cognition and second language instruction (pp. 206-257). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Basturkmen, H, & Loewen, S. (2001). Learner uptake in communicative ESL lessons. Language learning, 51, 281-318.
Dabaghi, A. (2006). Error correction. Report on a study. Language Learning Journal, 34 (1): 10-13
Tedick, J. 1998. Research on Error Correction and Implications for Classroom Teaching. Indiana: University of Minnesota
Lyster, R, Saito, K, & Sato, M. (2013). Oral corrective feedback in second language classrooms. Language Teaching, 46 (1), 1-40.
Schmidt, R. (2001). Attention. In P. Robinson (Eds.), Cognition and second language instruction (pp. 3–32). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Sarwar, M. Ashfaque, A. S. and MehlahJabeen. (2014). ‘Assessing English Speaking Skills of Prospective Teachers at Entry and Graduation Level in Teacher.’ Language Testing in Asia; A Springer Open Journal, 4/5: 1.
Kosar, G. and Hasan Bedir. (2014). ‘Strategies- Based Instruction: A means of Improving Adult EFL Learners’ Speaking Skills.’ International Journal of Language Academy, 2/3: 16- 17.
Harmer, J. (1991). The practice of English language teaching. Longman Handbooks for Language Teachers. London/New York.
Baker, J, & Westrup, H. (2003). Essential speaking skills. London: Continuum and Voluntary Service Overseas.
Littlewood, W. (2007). Communicative and task-based language teaching in East Asian classrooms. Language Teaching 40 (3), 243-249.
Lindsay, C. & Knight, P. (2006). Learning And Teaching English A Course For Teachers. New York: Oxford University Press.
Johnson, K. (2008). Precision Teaching. In N. Suskind (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Educational Psychology, 2, 809-813. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Park, H. & Lee, A. R. (2005). L2 Learners’ Anxiety; Self-Confidence and Oral Performance. Paper presented at The Pan-Pacific Association of Applied Linguistics (PAAL), Japan.
Argudo, M. (2013). ‘An Investigation Into How EFL Learners Emotionally Respond to Teachers’ Oral Corrective Feedback.’ Applied Linguistic Journal, 15/2: 124.
Elsaghayer, M. (2014). ‘Affective Damage to Oral Corrective Feedback among Students in Libyan Secondary Schools. IQSR Journal of Research & Method in Education (IQSR- JRME), 4/6: 76.
Dornyei, Z. (1995). On the Teachability of Communication Strategies. TESOL QUARTERLY. Vol. 29, No. 1,
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186