Investigating the Relationship between Iranian High School Female Students’ Spiritual Intelligence, Language Proficiency and Self-Esteem
Spiritual intelligent refers to people's capacity to express and represent spiritual resources, values, and properties to improve and advance everyday performance. Language proficiency refers to a system which is suitable to communicate. Self-esteem is a construct of within the field of psychology and it refers to individual’s behaviors and thoughts. This study was conducted to find the relationship between Iranian female students’ spiritual intelligence, language proficiency, and self-esteem. The participants of this study were 60 female high school students from Hazrate Masome High School in Farrashband, Iran and were studying in Grade Three. They filled two questionnaires of spiritual intelligence and self-esteem, and a language proficiency test which was taken from the U.S Language Proficiency Examination. The analyses of data revealed that there is a relationship between language proficiency and self-esteem. Moreover, the results of correlation and independent sample t-test showed that there was a significant correlation between spiritual intelligence and language proficiency. Finally, the results showed the relationship between these three variables. The results also showed that the higher the level of spiritual intelligence, the higher language proficiency and self-esteem will be.
Investigating the Relationship between Iranian High School Female Students’ Spiritual Intelligence, Language Proficiency and Self-Esteem, International Journal of Language and Linguistics. Special Issue: Innovations in Foreign Language Teaching.
Vol. 2, No. 6-1,
2014, pp. 19-27.
Ahmadi, S.J; Kajbaf. (2008). The relationship between spirituality attitude and demographic characters in students Esfahan university.
Amram, Y. (2007). The seven dimensions of spiritual intelligence: An ecumenical, grounded theory. Retrieved from http://www.yosiamram.net/docs/7_Dimensi ons_of_SI_APA_confr_paper_Yosi_Amram.pdf, 2013.
Anandarajah, G., & Hight, E. (2001). Spirituality and medical practice: Using the hope questions as practical tool for spiritual assessment. American Family Physician,63, 81-88.
Armstrong, T. (1994). Multiple intelligences in the classroom: A nuts-and-bolts guide.Virginia: ASCD.
Armstrong, T. (2009). Multiple intelligences in the classroom. Alexandira, VA, USA:ASCD.
Aziz, M., & Zamaniyan, M. (2013, may). The relationship between spiritual intelligence and vocabulary learning strategies in EFL learners. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 3(5), 852-858.
Bahrevar, E., Rashvand, O. (2013). A study of the relationship among spiritual intelligence organizational citizenship behavior and turnover intentions.
International Journal of Research in Organizational Behavior and, 1(2), 25-34.
Baumeister, R. F., Campbell, J. D., Krueger, J. O., & Vohs, K. D. (2003). Does high self-esteem cause better performance, interpersonal success, happiness, or healthier life styles? Psychological science in the public interest, 4(1), 1-44.
Blagojevich, R. R., Ruiz, J., & Dunn, R. J. (2004). Illinois English language proficiency standards for English language learners (K-12). Illinois state board of Education.
Branden, N. (1997). Honoring the self: Self-esteem and personal transformation. New York: Bantam Book. p.2.
Briere, E. J. (1972). Are we really measuring proficiency with our foreign language tests?
In H.B. Allen and R.N. Campbell (2th Ed.). Teaching English as a second languages: A book of readings. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company.
Brown, H. (2000). Principles of language learning and teaching (4th Ed.). San Francisco: Addison Wesley Longman.
Campbell, L., & Campbell, B. (1999). Multiple intelligences and student achievement:
Success stories from six schools. Alexandria, VA: Association for supervision and curriculum development. p. 10.
Clark, J. L. (1972). Foreign language testing: Theory and practice. Philadelpgia, PA:Center for curriculum development.
Cooper, S. (1967). The antecedents of self-esteem. Sanfransisco: Freeman and Company.p. 4-5.
Cooper, S. (1976). The antecedents of self-esteem. Sanfransisco: Freeman and Company.
Cummins, J. (1981). Age on arrival and immigrant second language learning in Canada.
Association Applied linguistics, 2, 132-149.
Daaleman, T. P., Perera, S., & Studentski. S. (2004, January/February). Religion, spirituality and health status in Geriatric outpatients. Annuals of Family Medicine, 2.
Demo, D. H., & Parker, K, D. (1987). Academic achievement and self-esteem among black and white college students. Journal of social psychology, 127, 345-355.
Diezmann, C. M., & Watters, J. J. (2000). Identifying and supporting spatial intelligence in young children. In Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 1, 299-313.
Diezmann, R. (2008, February 5). Multiple intelligences. Retrieved February 5, 2009, from http://lth3.k12.il.us/rhampton/mi/mi.html.
Emmons, R. (1999). The psychology of ultimate concerns: Motivation and spirituality in personality. Guilford, New York.
Gardner, H. (1983). Frame of mind. New York: Basic Books.
Gardner, H. (1993). Multiple intelligences. New York: basic books.
Gardner, H. (2005, May). Multiple lenses on the mind. Paper presented at the ExpoGestion Conference, Bogota, and Colombia. p. 8.
Hinckley, J. (1998). What gets tested gets taught. Teaching Music, 6(2), 6-7.
Hutchinson, M. A. (1972). A study of the relationship of intermediate-grade children’s self-esteem and their attitude toward reading. ERIC Document Reproduction Services No. ED 063611
Kabgani, S. (2013). A componential approach to testing reading comprehension: A case of Iranian EFL learners. Iranian EFL Journal, 288-299.
Kennedy, J. E., Abbott, R. A., & Rosenberg, B. S. (2002). Changes in spirituality and wellbeing in a retreat program for cardiac patients. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 8(4), 64-73.
Kimura, M. (2002). Affective factors of Japanese EFL learners at junior college in the oral communication tasks. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, USA. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 471470)
King, U. (2009). The search for spirituality. Norwich: Canterbury Press.
Kirkgoz, Y. (2012). Catering for multiple intelligences in locally-published ELT textbooks in Turkey. Procedia- Social and Behavioral Sciences, 3, 127-130.
Lazear, D. (1994). Seven pathways of learning: Teaching students and parents about multiple intelligences. Tacson, AZ: Zepher Press Needham Hights, MA: Alleynand Bacon.
Maier, P. H. (1998). Spatial geometry and spatial ability: How to make solid geometry solid? In the Selecyed Papers from the Annual Conference of Didactics of Mathematis, 63-75.
Martin, J. (2001). Profiting from multiple intelligences in the workplace. Norwalk:Crown House Publishers Limited, p.48.
Mayer, J., & Salovey, P. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, cognition, and personality. 9,185- 211.
Moran, S., Kornbaber, M., & Gardner, H. (2006). Orchestrating multiple intelligences. Educational Leadership, 64(1,). p. 41.
Nasel, D. D. (2004). Spiritual orientation in relation to spiritual intelligence: A consideration of traditional Christianity and New Age/individualistic spirituality. Doctoral dissertation, University of South Australia. Australia.
Oxford Dictionary (2th Ed), (2005). New York: Oxford University Press.
Razmjoo, S. A. (2008). On the relationship between multiple intelligences and language proficiency. The Reading Matrix, 8 (2), 155-174.
Reimer, B. (1998). Beyond the theory of multiple intelligences. Paper Presented at Seahore Symposium.
Richards, J., & Rodgers, T. (2001). Approaches and methods in language teaching.
Cambridge: Cambridge. Rogers, J., & Dantley, M. (2001). Invoking the spiritual in camus life and leadership.
Jouenal of College Student Development, 42(6), 589-603.
Sahragard, R., Baharloo, A., & Soozandehfar, S. M. A. (2011). A closer look at the relationship between academic achievement and language proficiency among Iranian EFL students. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 1(12), 1740-1748.
Savignon, S. J. (1983). Communicative competence: Theory and classroom practice, reading. MA: Addision- websley publishing company.
Shore, J. R. (2001). An investigation of multiple intelligences and self-efficacy in the university English as a second language classroom (Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University). Retrieved July 19, 2008, from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 3029591)
Simonton, D. K. (2003). Human intelligence: historical influences, current controversies, teaching resources. (J. A. Plucker, Ed.) http://www.intelltheory.com, 2003.
Soleimani, H., Moinnzadeh, A., Kassaian, Z., & Ketabi, S. (2012). The effect of instruction based on multiple intelligences theory on the attitude and learning of general English. English language Teaching, 5(9), 45-53.
Sternberg, R. J. (1997). Thinking styles. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Van Ness, P.H., & Kasl, S.V. (2003). Religion and cognitive dysfunction in an elderly cohort. Journal of Gerontology: Social Science, 58(1), S21-S29.
Vialle, S., Heaven, M. L., & Ciarrochi. (2005). The relationship between self-esteem and academic achivement in high ability students: Evidence from the wollongong youth study. Australasian Journal of Gifted Education(2), 39-45.
Wigglesworth, C. (2003). Spiritual intelligence: What is it? How can we measure it? Why would business care? Conscious Pursuits, Inc. www.consciouspursuits.com, 2003.
Wolman, R. (2001). Thinking with your soul: Spiritual intelligence and why it matters. P.83. New York: Harmony.
Woolfolk, A. E. (2005). Educational psychology (9th Ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Zohar, D. & Marshall, I. (2000). SQ: Spiritual intelligence, the ultimate intelligence, New York: Bloomsbury Publishing.
Zohar, D., & Marshall, I. N. (2001). SQ: Spiritual intelligence, the ultimate intelligence. London.
Zohar, D. & Marshall, I. (2004). Spiritual capital: Wealth we can live. San Francisco: Berrett Koehler.