Evidence of African Swine Fever Virus in Pigs Slaughtered at Muhanzi Municipal Abattoir in Bukavu City, Eastern of Democratic Republic of Congo
International Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Volume 4, Issue 1, March 2019, Pages: 1-7
Received: Dec. 14, 2018;
Accepted: Jan. 2, 2019;
Published: Feb. 19, 2019
Views 209 Downloads 61
Bisimwa Ntagereka Patrick, Department of Animal Science and Production, Université Evangélique en Afrique, Bukavu, Democratic Republic of Congo
Wasso Shukuru Dieudonné, Department of Animal Science and Production, Université Evangélique en Afrique, Bukavu, Democratic Republic of Congo
Ntakundi Muderhwa Théophile, Department of Animal Science and Production, Université Evangélique en Afrique, Bukavu, Democratic Republic of Congo
Bwihangane Birindwa Ahadi, Department of Animal Science and Production, Université Evangélique en Afrique, Bukavu, Democratic Republic of Congo
Bisimwa Basengere Espoir, Department of Animal Science and Production, Université Evangélique en Afrique, Bukavu, Democratic Republic of Congo
Mushagalusa Nachigera Gustave, Department of Animal Science and Production, Université Evangélique en Afrique, Bukavu, Democratic Republic of Congo
Katcho Karume, Department of Animal Science and Production, Université Evangélique en Afrique, Bukavu, Democratic Republic of Congo
Baluku Bajope, Department of Animal Science and Production, Université Evangélique en Afrique, Bukavu, Democratic Republic of Congo
African swine fever (ASF) is an acute, highly infectious and fatal arboviral disease affecting both wild and domestic pigs causing a very high mortality rate that goes up to 100%. Up to date no vaccines are available to protect the animals against the disease. No study has been conducted to assess the presence of ASFV in imported slaughtered pigs in Bukavu city and very limited literature is available on ASF in the entire country of Democratic Republic of Congo. A cross sectional study was carried out in Muhanzi municipal abattoir of Bukavu city, eastern Democratic Republic of Congo to investigate the presence of antibodies against African swine fever virus (ASFV) and the viral genome in imported pigs for slaughtering. The commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent and the conventional polymerase chain reaction assays were used to screen both ASFV antibodies and viral genome respectively. In total 284 pigs were tested out of which 87.3% (248/284) were female adult of more than 1 year old. The majority of them (75.4% (214/284) were imported from Rwanda of which about 62.7% (178/284) of them presented clinical sign such as redness in the skin. Most of them (90.8%) were exotic breed. Out of 284 animals tested, ASFV antibodies were detected in 69 giving an overall seroprevalence of 24.2% from which pigs originated from Idjwi territory were more ASF seropositive (64.2%) compared to the one imported from Rwanda (11.2%). The seropositivity was found to be significantly associated with the breed (OR= 7.4, p<0.05), origin of animals (OR = 14.2, p<0.05) as well as all the observed clinical signs (p<0.05) except nasal discharges and abnormal liver (p>0.05). Additionally, 38 animals out of 284 tested (13.3%) were ASFV PCR positive with high infectivity rate (35.7%) when pigs slaughtered originated from Idjwi territory of the DRC were found to be more infected than the one imported from Rwanda (OR= 8.5, p<0.05). The ASFV PCR positivity was found to be significantly associated with age where young animals (<12 months old) were found to be more infected (OR= 3.6, p<0.05). Similarly, the local breeds were found to be significantly more infected when compared with exotic breed (OR-7.6; p<0.0001). Deliberate policy has to be implemented in order to prevent spread of the disease to pig farms within the region and for saving the pig industry from ASF devastation.
Bisimwa Ntagereka Patrick,
Wasso Shukuru Dieudonné,
Ntakundi Muderhwa Théophile,
Bwihangane Birindwa Ahadi,
Bisimwa Basengere Espoir,
Mushagalusa Nachigera Gustave,
Evidence of African Swine Fever Virus in Pigs Slaughtered at Muhanzi Municipal Abattoir in Bukavu City, Eastern of Democratic Republic of Congo, International Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology.
Vol. 4, No. 1,
2019, pp. 1-7.
S. Costard, L. Mur, J. Lubroth, J. M. Sanchez-Vizcaino, and D. U. Pfeiffer, “Epidemiology of African swine fever virus”. Virus Res, no.173, 2013, pp. 191–197.
L. K. Dixon, J. M. Escribano, C. Martins, D. L. Rock, M. L. Salas, and P. J. Wilkinson, “Asfarviridae”. In: Fauquet, C. M., M. A. Mayo, J. Maniloff, U. Desselberger, and L. A. Ball (eds), Virus Taxonomy, VIIIth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, 2005, pp. 135–143. Elsevier Academic Press, London.
C. Gallardo, E. Okoth, V. Pelayo, R. Anchuelo, E. Martín, A. Simón, A. Llorente, R. Nieto, A. Soler, R. Martín, S. Arias, and R. Bishop, “African swine fever viruses with two different genotypes, both of which occur in domestic pigs, are associated with ticks and adult warthogs, respectively, at a single geographical site”. J of Gen Virolono. 92, 2011, pp. 432 – 444.
M. Foueré, “Reportage à Madagascar: un pro du porc”. http://pigtrop.cirad.fr/subjects/animal husbandry and sustainable practices/reportage a Madagascar un pro du porc.pdf, 2007, (accessed 21.11.18).
C. J. Quembo, F. Jori, W. Vosloo, and L. Heath, “Genetic characterization of African swine fever virus isolates from soft ticks at the wildlife/domestic interface in Mozambique and identification of a novel genotype”. Transb and Emerg Dis, vol. 65, no. 2, 2017, pp. 420–431.
Office International des Epizooties (OIE), “WAHID interface animal health information African swine fever” [athttp://web.oie.int/wahis/public.php] site visited on 20/6/2013.2012.
G. Misinzo, E. D. Kwavi, D. C. Sikombe, M. Makange, E. Peter, P. A. Muhairwa, and J. M. Madege, “Molecular characterization of African swine fever virus from domestic pigs in northern Tanzania during an outbreak in 2013”. Trop Anim Health Prod, no. 46, 2014, pp.1199–1207.
C. Gallardo, R. Nieto, A. Soler, V. Pelayo, J. Fernández-Pinero, and I. D. Markowska, “Assessment of African swine fever diagnostic techniques as a response to the epidemic outbreaks in Eastern European Union countries”: How to improve surveillance and control programmes. J Clin Microbiol.2015, JCM.00857-15.
M. L. Penrith, and W. Vosloo, “Review of African swine fever: transmission, spread and control: review article”. J S Afr Vet Assoc.; vol.80, no. 2, 2009, pp. 58–62.
J. M. Sánchez-Vizcaíno, M. Arias, J. Zimmerman, L. A. Karriker, A. Ramirez, and K. J. Schwartz, “African Swine Fever. Diseases of swine”. 10th ed. United States of America: John Wiley and Sons; 2012, pp. 396–404.
J. M. Sánchez-Vizcaíno, and L. Mur, “African swine fever diagnosis update”. DevBiol (Basel).; no.135, 2013, pp.159–65.
J. E. Achenbach, C. Gallardo, E. Nieto-Pelegrın, B. Rivera-Arroyo, T. Degefa-Negi, M. Arias, and J. M. Sanchez-Vizcaıno, “Identification of a new genotype of African swine fever virus in domestic pigs from Ethiopia”. Transb and Emer Dis, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1111/tbed.12511.
M. Arias, C. Jurado, C. Gallardo, J. Fernández-Pinero, and J. M. Sánchez-Vizcaíno “Gaps in African swine fever: Analysis and priorities”. Transb Emer Dis, 2017, pp. 1–13.
J. M. Escribano, I. Galindo, and C. Alonso, “Antibody-mediated neutralization of African swine fever virus: myths and facts”. Virus Res.; 1vol. 73, no. 1, 2013, pp. 101–109.
A. El-Sawalhy, B. Soumaré, S. Nouala, B. Mukanda, H. Wamwayi, and I. G. Ahmed, “African Swine fever”. In Pan African Animal Health Yearbook; Interafrican Bureau for Animal Resources, African Union: Nairobi, Kenya, 2011, pp. 16–17.
B. A. Lubisi, A. D. Bastos, R. M. Dwarka, and W. Vosloo, “Molecular epidemiology of African swine fever in East Africa”. Arch of Virol, no.150, 2005, pp. 2439–2452.
K. Vlassenroot, “South Kivu: Identity, territory, and power in the eastern Congo”; RVI Usalama Project 10 South Kivu.2013.
I. R. Dohoo, S. W. Martin, and H. Stryhn, “Veterinary Epidemiologic Research”. 2nd ed. VER Inc., Charlottetown, PEI, Canada, 2009, pp. 610.
A. D. Bastos, M. L. Penrith, C. Cruciere, J. L. Edrich, G. Hutchings, F. Roger, E. Couacy-Hymann, and G. R. Thomson, “Genotyping field strains of African swine fever virus by partial p72 gene characterisation”. Arch of Virol, no.148: pp. 693–706.
E. O. Abworo, C. Onzere , A. J. Oluoch, V. Riitho, W. Mwangi, J. Davies , S. Blome, , and P. R. Bishop, “Detection of African swine fever virus in the tissues of asymptomatic pigs in smallholder farming systems along the Kenya-Uganda border: implications for transmission in endemic areas and ASF surveillance in East Africa”. J of Gen Virol, Vol 98 no 7, 2017, pp. 1806-1814.
J. K, Lichoti, J. Davies, P. P. Kitala, S. M. Githigia, and E. Okoth, “Social network analysis provides insights into African swine fever epidemiology”. Prev Vet Med; no.126, 2016, pp.1–10.
L. F. Thomas, R. P., Bishop, C. Onzere, M. T, Mcintosh, and K. A. Lemire, “Evidence for the presence of African swine fever virus in an endemic region of western Kenya in the absence of any reported outbreak”. BMC Vet Res; no.12, 2016, pp.192.
D. K. Atuhaire, M. Afayoa, S. Ochwo, S. Mwesigwa, and F. N. Mwiine, “Prevalence of African swine fever virus in apparently healthy domestic pigs in Uganda”. BMC Vet Res; vol 9, 2013, pp. 263.
A. Grenier, “Quel avenir pour la filière porcine au lac Alaotra (Madagascar) » ? Thèse méd. vét., université Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France, 2004, 112 p.
C. Humbert, Etude épidémiologique de la peste porcine africaine dans la région de Marovoay (Madagascar): “Etude de la filière porcine selon une approche participative et étude de prevalence”. Thesis. Inedit. 2006, pp.61.
C. Gallardo, A. Soler, R. Nieto, A. L. Carrascosa, and G. M. de Mia, “Comparative evaluation of novel African swine fever virus (ASF) antibody detection techniques derived from specific ASF viral genotypes with the OIE internationally prescribed serological tests”. Vet Microbiol, no.162, 2013, pp. 32–43.
Office International des Epizooties (OIE), “African swine fever. In Manual of diagnostic tests and Vaccines for terrestrial animals”. Vol 6th, Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties; vol. 6th, 2008, pp.1–13.
L. K. Mulumba–Mfumu, J. E. Achenbach., M. R. Mauldin, L. K. Dixon, C. G. Tshilenge, E. Thiry, N. Moreno, E. Blanco, C. Saegerman, E. Lamien, and A. Diallo, “Genetic Assessment of African Swine Fever Isolates Involved in Outbreaks in the Democratic Republic of Congo between 2005 and 2012 Reveals Co-Circulation of p72 Genotypes I, IX and XIV, Including 19 Variants.”Viruses, no. 9, 2017, pp. 31, doi: 10.3390/v9020031.
E. Okoth, C. Gallardo, J. M. Macharia, A. Omore, and V. Pelayo, “Comparison of African swine fever virus prevalence and risk in two contrasting pig-farming systems in South-west and Central Kenya”. Prev Vet Med; no.110, 2013, pp.198–205.
M. L. Penrith, W. Vosloo, F. Jori, and A. D. S. Bastos, “African swine fever virus eradication in Africa”. Virus Res.; vol.173, no. 1, 2013, pp.228–246.
J. M. Haresnape, “African swine fever in Malawi”. Tropl Anim Health Prod, vol.16, no. 2, 1984, pp. 123–125.