International Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Volume 3, Issue 3, September 2018, Pages: 79-82
Received: Oct. 1, 2018;
Accepted: Oct. 22, 2018;
Published: Nov. 10, 2018
Views 488 Downloads 69
Anthony Chibuogwu Ike, Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
Dickson Ihenrochi Dickson, Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
Okechukwu John Obi, Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
Salmonellae are ubiquitous microorganisms that infect both humans and animals. Human infections usually occur through contaminated food or water and can result in one of two major diseases, namely gastroenteritis and enteric fever. Hence, Salmonella remains a major public health problem especially in developing countries where the level of hygiene is very low. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential risk of Salmonella serovars isolated from the University of Nigeria Nsukka (UNN) wastewater treatment plants. Three Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Limete isolates from the UNN waste treatment plants were investigated for the presence of invasive A (invA) gene. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was extracted from the isolates by boiling method. Extracted bacteria DNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using invA specific primers. PCR products were resolved on 1.5% agarose gel stained with 0.5 µg/ml of ethidium bromide. Results showed the presence of a band size of 244 base pair of Salmonella invA gene in 2 of the isolates. This is an indication that the isolates may have a human or animal origin and are potentially pathogenic. Therefore, the treatment of water in the wastewater plant is insufficient and water from the plant should not be employed for human use or used with caution.
Anthony Chibuogwu Ike,
Dickson Ihenrochi Dickson,
Okechukwu John Obi,
Detection of invA Gene in Salmonella Limete Isolated from Wastewater Treatment Plant of University of Nigeria Nsukka, Nigeria, International Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology.
Vol. 3, No. 3,
2018, pp. 79-82.
O. J. Mhongole, R. H. Mdegela, L. J. Kusiluka, and A. Forslund, “Characterization of Salmonella spp. from wastewater used for food production in Morogoro, Tanzania,” World J Microbiol Biotechnol, vol. 33 no. 3, 2017, pp. 42.
P. Santiago, A. Jiménez-Belenguer, J. García-Hernández, R. M. Estellés, M. Hernández Pérez, M. A. Castillo López, M. A. Ferrús, and Y. Moreno, “High prevalence of Salmonella spp. in wastewater reused for irrigation assessed by molecular methods,” Int J Hyg Environ Health, vol. 221 no. 1, 2018, pp. 95-101.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Salmonella annual summary 2004,” 2005. Retrieved on 16th September, 2013 from http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dbmd/phlisdata/salmonella.html.
A. K. Bhunia, “Food borne microbial pathogens: mechanisms and pathogenesis,” Springer Science and Business Media, LLC, United States of America, 2008.
J. Suez, S. Porwollik, A. Dagan, A. Marzel, Y. I. Schorr, P. T. Desai, V. Agmon, M. McClelland, G. Rahar, and O. Gal-Mor, “Virulence gene profiling and pathogenicity of non-typhoidal Salmonella accounted for invasive disease in humans,” PLoS One, vol. 8, 2013, e58449.
C. M. Parry, T. T. Hien, G. Dougan, N. J. White, and J. J. Farrar, “Typhoid fever,” New Engl J Med, vol. 347 no. 22, 2002, pp. 1770-1782.
R. T. Michael, and B. David, “Introduction to wastewater treatment,” Ventus publishing APS, 2011, ISBN: 978-87-7681-843-2.
United Nations Environment Programme/United National-Habitat, “Sick water? The central role of wastewater management in sustainable development: A rapid response assessment,” E. Corocovan, C. Nellemann, E. Baker, R. Bos, D. Osborn, and H. Savelli, (ed), 2010, ISBN: 978-82-7707-075-5, 2010.
I. Howard, E. Espigares, P. Lardelli, J. L. Martın, and M. Espigares, “Evaluation of microbiological and physicochemical indicators for wastewater treatment,” Environ Toxicol, vol. 19, 2004, pp. 241-249.
E. Espigares, A. Bueno, M. Espigares, and R. Galvez, “Isolation of Salmonella serotypes in wastewater and effluent: Effect of treatment and potential risk,” Int J Hyg Environ Health, vol. 209, 2006, pp. 103-107.
J. E. Galán, and R. Curtiss III, “Distribution of invA, -B, -C, and –D genes of Salmonella typhimurium among other Salmonella serovars: invA mutants of Salmonella typhi are deficient for entry into mammalian cells,” Infect Immun, vol. 59, no. 9, 1991, pp. 2901-2908.
S. L. Marcus, J. H. Brumell, C. G. Pfeifer, and B. B. Finlay, “Salmonella pathogenicity islands: big virulence in small packages,” Microbes Infect, vol. 2, 2000, pp. 145-156.
A. J. Bäumler, R. M. Tsolis, T. A. Ficht, and L. G. Adams, “Evolution of host adaptation in Salmonella enterica,” Infect Immun, vol. 66 no. 10, 1998, pp. 4579-4587.
J. Feirer, and D. G. Guiney, “Diverse virulence traits underlying different clinical outcomes of Salmonella infection,” J Clin Invest, vol. 107, no. 7, 2001, pp. 775-780.
International Organization for Standardization, “General guidance on methods for the detection of Salmonella,” ISO 6579: Microbiology 4th (edn), Geneva, Switzerland, 2002.
American Public Health Association, “Standards methods for the examination of water and wastewater,” America Public Health Association 21st (edn), Washington DC, 2005.
I. D. Dickson, A. C. Ike, and I. M. Ezeonu, “Serotyping and molecular typing of Salmonella species isolated from wastewater in Nsukka, Nigeria,” Afr J Microbiol Res, vol. 10, no. 24, 2016, pp. 883-889.
D. D. Medici, L. Croci, E. Delibato, S. Pasquale, E. Filetici, and L. Toti, “Evaluation of DNA extraction methods for use in combination with SYBR Green I Real-Time PCR to detect Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis in poultry,” J App Environ Microbiol, vol. 69, 2003, pp. 3456-3461.
C. H. Chiu, and J. T. Ou, “Rapid identification of Salmonella serovars in feces by specific detection of invA and spvC, by an enrichment broth culture multiplex PCR combination assay,” J Clin Microbiol, vol. 34, 1996, pp. 2619-2622.
J. Sambrook, E. F. Fritsh, and T. Maniatis, “Molecular cloning,” A laboratory manual, 2nd (edn), Cold Spring Harber Lab Press, vol. 1, 1989, pp. 21-32.
S. Boqvist, I. Hansson, U. Nord Bjerselius, C. Hamilton, H. Wahlström, B. Noll, E. Tysen, and A. Engvall, “Salmonella isolated from animals and feed production in Sweden between 1993 and 1997,” Acta Vet. Scand, vol. 44, 2003, pp. 181-197.
M. A. Usera, A. Aladuena, R. Dıaz, M. De La Fuente, P. Cerdan, R. Gutie´rrez, and A. Echeita, “Ana´ lisis de las cepas de Salmonella spp aisladas de muestras de origen no humano en Espana en el ano, ” Bol Epidemiol Semanal, vol. 9, 2001, pp. 281-292.
M. Tejedor-Junco, M. Gonzalez, N. Rodriguez, and C. Gutierrez, “Prevalence, serotypes and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates from apparently healthy camels in Canary Islands (Spain),” J Camelid Sc, vol. 3, 2010. pp. 44-48.
A. A. El Hussein, H. S. Mohy-Eldin, M. M. Nor Elmadiena, and M. A. M. Siddig, “Prevalence, detection and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Salmonella in Sudan,” Res J Microbiol, vol. 5, no. 10, 2012, pp. 966-973.
K. Rahn, S. A. De Grandis, R. C. Clarke, S. A. McEwen, J. E. Galan, C. Ginocchio, R. Curtiss Ill, and C. L. Gyles, “Amplification of an invA gene sequence of Salmonella Typhimurium by polymerase chain reaction as a specific method of detection of Salmonella,” Mol Cell Probes, vol. 6, 1992, pp. 271-279.
C. C. Ginocchio, K. Rahn, R. C. Clarke, and J. E. Galan, “Naturally occurring deletions in the centisome 63 pathogenicity island of environmental isolates of Salmonella spp.,” Infect Immun, vol. 65, 1997, pp. 1267-1272.