The Capability of Clinical Laboratories in Kenya to Diagnose Fungal Infections and as Well Conduct Antifungal Drug Susceptibility Testing on the Isolates
International Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Volume 1, Issue 1, November 2016, Pages: 40-43
Received: Oct. 11, 2016;
Accepted: Dec. 2, 2016;
Published: Jan. 14, 2017
Views 2558 Downloads 99
Misigo Dennis Mwala, Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Kenya Methodist University, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Meru, Kenya
Julia Gachoka, Department of Human Pathology, Kenya Methodist University, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Meru, Kenya
Ireri Jason, Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Kenya Methodist University, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Meru, Kenya
Antifungal drug resistance seems to be growing at a first rate and the life span of the current antifungal drugs may soon be shorter than its shelf life. The capacity to detect resistance is being hampered by the lack of the means to test and also by the misconceived perception that most fungi are still susceptible to current antifungals drugs, resulting in the abdication of the duty to test and profile the susceptibility patterns. In view of this, the study aimed at determining if clinically isolated fungi are exhibiting drug resistance patterns by subjecting a few yeast forms of fungi, Candida albicans isolated during a routine urinalysis procedure on subjects with vulvovaginitis attending a medical camp, to antifungal sensitivity tests. As observed, out of thirty two (32) urine cultures, ten (10) were confirmed to contain Candida albicans. Out of the 10 Candida albicans isolates, three (3) of them exhibited signs of drug resistance to fluconazole and clotrimazole; hence the estimated resistance rate is about 30%. In conclusion a significant population of Candida albicans are clinically resistance to both fluconazole and clotrimazole and we need to strengthen the capacity of our clinical laboratories to conduct antifungal drug susceptibility testing.
Misigo Dennis Mwala,
The Capability of Clinical Laboratories in Kenya to Diagnose Fungal Infections and as Well Conduct Antifungal Drug Susceptibility Testing on the Isolates, International Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology.
Vol. 1, No. 1,
2016, pp. 40-43.
Merenstein D, Haihong Hu, Cuiwei W, Pilar H, Mandy B, Hui C, Richard C, Dongmei Li,. Colonization by Candida Species of the Oral and Vaginal Mucosa in HIV-Infected and Non-infected Women. AIDS Research of Human Retroviruses, 2013. Jan; 29 (1): 30–34.
Dismukes W, Pappas P, Sobel J. In Clinical Mycology, 2003. Oxford University Press.
Spampinato C, Darío L. Candida infections, causes, targets, and resistance mechanisms: traditional and alternative antifungal agents, 2013. Hindawi Publishing Corporation.
Dos Santos Abrantes PM, McArthur CP, Africa CWJ. Multi-drug resistant oral Candida species isolated from HIV-positive patients in South Africa and Cameroon. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, 2014. Jun; 79 (2): 222–7.
Xiao M, Fan X, Chen SC-A, Wang H, Sun Z-Y, Liao K, et al. Antifungal susceptibilities of Candida glabrata species complex, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis species complex and Candida tropicalis causing invasive candidiasis in China: 3 year national surveillance. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy., 2015. Mar; 70 (3): 802–10.
Johnson EM, Warnock DW, Luker J, Porter SR, Scully C. Emergence of azole drug resistance in Candida species from HIV-infected patients receiving prolonged fluconazole therapy for oral candidosis. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 1995. 35 (1): 103–114.
Moran GP, Sullivan DJ, Henman MC, McCreary CE, Harrington BJ, Shanley DB, et al. Antifungal drug susceptibilities of oral Candida dubliniensis isolates from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and non-HIV-infected subjects and generation of stable fluconazole-resistant derivatives in vitro. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 1997. Mar; 41 (3): 617–23.
Pelletier RÂ, Joanne P, Lauren W, Cynthia A, Thomas JW. Emergence of Resistance of Candida albicans to Clotrimazole in Human Immunodeciency Virus-Infected Children: In Vitro and Clinical Correlations. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2000. Apr. 1563-1568.
Pfaller MA, 2012. Antifungal drug resistance: mechanisms, epidemiology, and consequences for treatment. The American journal of medicine. 125 (1): S3–S13.
Sanguinetti, M., Posteraro, B, Lass-Flörl, C. Antifungal drug resistance among Candida species: mechanisms and clinical impact, 2015. Mycoses, 58: 2–13.
CLSI, 2002. Reference Method for Broth Dilution Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Yeasts; Approved Standard-Second Edition. Pennsylvania, USA.
Matar MJ, Ostrosky-Zeichner L, Paetznick VL, Rodriguez JR, Chen E, Rex JH Correlation between E-test, disk diffusion and micro-dilution method for antifungal susceptibility testing of fluconazole and voriconazole. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 2003. 47: 1647–51.
Alastruey-Izquierdo A, Melhem MS, Bonfietti LX, Rodriguez-Tudela JL. Susceptibility test for fungi: clinical and laboratorial correlations in medical mycology. Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo (Journal of the São Paulo Institute of Tropical Medicine)., 2015. Sep; 57 Suppl 19: 57-64.
Yadav V, Manish S, John P. J.. Transcriptional Regulation of CDR1, a major efflux pump involved in multidrug resistance in Candida albicans. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 2014. 3 (6) 399-407.
Fan SR, Liu XP, Li JW. Clinical characteristics of vulvovaginal candidiasis and antifungal susceptibilities of Candida species isolates among patients in southern China from 2003 to 2006. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research, 2008. 34: 561–6.
Arendrup MC. Candida and candidaemia. Susceptibility and epidemiology. Danish Medical Journal, 2013. Nov; 60 (11): B4698.
Ozhak-Baysan B, Ogunc D, Colak D, Ongut G, Donmez L, Vural T, et al. Distribution and antifungal susceptibility of Candida species causing nosocomial candiduria. Medical Mycology, 2012. Jul; 50 (5): 529–32.
Fairlamb AH, Gow NAR, Matthews KR, Waters AP. Drug resistance in eukaryotic microorganisms. Nature Microbiology, 2016. 1 (7): 16092.