A Kinetic Assay for Drug Discovery: Part 2, Sodium Sulfate
American Journal of Applied Scientific Research
Volume 6, Issue 2, June 2020, Pages: 39-42
Received: Mar. 31, 2020; Accepted: Apr. 17, 2020; Published: Apr. 30, 2020
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Authors
Kristel Crocker, Department of Biology and Center for Cancer and Developmental Biology, California State University Northridge, Northridge, California, United States
Jonie Deleon, Department of Biology and Center for Cancer and Developmental Biology, California State University Northridge, Northridge, California, United States
Lucy Telliyan, Department of Biology and Center for Cancer and Developmental Biology, California State University Northridge, Northridge, California, United States
Kevin Aprelian, Department of Biology and Center for Cancer and Developmental Biology, California State University Northridge, Northridge, California, United States
Aryeh Rosenberg, Department of Biology and Center for Cancer and Developmental Biology, California State University Northridge, Northridge, California, United States
Nikole Pouri, Department of Biology and Center for Cancer and Developmental Biology, California State University Northridge, Northridge, California, United States
Gerard Beltran, Department of Biology and Center for Cancer and Developmental Biology, California State University Northridge, Northridge, California, United States
Vivian Ramirez, Department of Biology and Center for Cancer and Developmental Biology, California State University Northridge, Northridge, California, United States
David Kaufman, Department of Biology and Center for Cancer and Developmental Biology, California State University Northridge, Northridge, California, United States
Arpineh Petrosyan, Department of Biology and Center for Cancer and Developmental Biology, California State University Northridge, Northridge, California, United States
Deanna Nazarian, Department of Biology and Center for Cancer and Developmental Biology, California State University Northridge, Northridge, California, United States
Monikajane Magistrado, Department of Biology and Center for Cancer and Developmental Biology, California State University Northridge, Northridge, California, United States
Suren Matinian, Department of Biology and Center for Cancer and Developmental Biology, California State University Northridge, Northridge, California, United States
Daniel Hanna, Department of Biology and Center for Cancer and Developmental Biology, California State University Northridge, Northridge, California, United States
Sera Eskandari, Department of Biology and Center for Cancer and Developmental Biology, California State University Northridge, Northridge, California, United States
Faisal Atanante, Department of Biology and Center for Cancer and Developmental Biology, California State University Northridge, Northridge, California, United States
Adees Nerses, Department of Biology and Center for Cancer and Developmental Biology, California State University Northridge, Northridge, California, United States
Greg Zem, Department of Biology and Center for Cancer and Developmental Biology, California State University Northridge, Northridge, California, United States
Steven Oppenheimer, Department of Biology and Center for Cancer and Developmental Biology, California State University Northridge, Northridge, California, United States
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Abstract
Clumped cells are generally more dangerous than single cells in cancer spread, thrombocytosis and biofilm infectivity. Here a simple direct kinetic assay is used to examine a specific reagent for anti-clumping activity using a Prefer fixed yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) model that has been recently described by us in detail using other reagents. In 1212 trials by 17 investigators sodium sulfate (1-3 mg per ml deionized water) was examined by measuring percentage single cells, number of clumps and number of cells per clump over a 60 min time course, with standard deviations and t-tests to determine any significant differences between controls and experimentals. Sodium sulfate showed sometimes inconsistent unclumping activity especially in magnitude of effects. When percentage of single cells increased, clump number and/or number of cells per clump generally decreased, helping to validate the assay. An example of these findings in 60 trials at 60 min with 1-3 mg sodium sulfate per ml deionized water: 1 mg 15% increased singles (p<0.01), 29% decreased clumps (p<0.01), 11% decreased cells per clump (p>0.05); 2 mg 12% increased singles (p<0.01), 20% decreased clumps (p<0.01), 30% decreased cells per clump (p<0.01); 3 mg 27% increased singles (p<0.01), 36% decreased clumps (p<0.01), 28% decreased cells per clump (p<0.02). Here sodium sulfate showed promise as an anti-cell-clumping reagent together with sodium citrate reported previously in part 1 of this study. Sodium citrate is a known human anticoagulant independently identified with this assay, helping to validate the assay for drug discovery applications.
Keywords
Sodium Sulfate Unclumps Cells, Fixed Yeast Model, Kinetic Assay, Drug Discovery
To cite this article
Kristel Crocker, Jonie Deleon, Lucy Telliyan, Kevin Aprelian, Aryeh Rosenberg, Nikole Pouri, Gerard Beltran, Vivian Ramirez, David Kaufman, Arpineh Petrosyan, Deanna Nazarian, Monikajane Magistrado, Suren Matinian, Daniel Hanna, Sera Eskandari, Faisal Atanante, Adees Nerses, Greg Zem, Steven Oppenheimer, A Kinetic Assay for Drug Discovery: Part 2, Sodium Sulfate, American Journal of Applied Scientific Research. Vol. 6, No. 2, 2020, pp. 39-42. doi: 10.11648/j.ajasr.20200602.12
Copyright
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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