American Journal of Applied Scientific Research
Volume 4, Issue 4, December 2018, Pages: 52-59
Received: Nov. 16, 2018;
Accepted: Dec. 5, 2018;
Published: Jan. 14, 2019
Views 185 Downloads 31
Stephano Mambuye Alphayo, Department of Water Quality Laboratory Technology, Water Institute, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Mahendra Pal Sharma, Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, India
Increase in population and industrialization has strongly impacted the rivers and lakes all over the world. Meanwhile, Tanzania river’s water quality faces the same challenges. The Government of Tanzania is trying to overcome the problems by analyzing water quality data from its rivers. However, a lot of data collected require to be converted into a single value “index” understandable by decision and policy-makers. Therefore, the assessment by using different water quality indices like the National Sanitation Foundation for Water Quality Index (NSFWQI), River Pollution Index (RPI) and Overall Index of Pollution (OIP) are very useful. The present paper used water quality indices and land use maps to assess and investigates the water quality of the Ruvu river in Tanzania. Water quality samples collected from 14 sampling locations for the year 2014-2017 were used. The three water quality indices used in evaluation categorized the water quality of the Ruvu river as a medium, polluted and moderately polluted as per NSFWQI, OIP and RPI respectively. The index values were; 53.2, 4.69 and 4.78 for NSFWQI, OIP and RPI respectively. The impact of land use on water quality was analyzed by using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) techniques and ERDAS imagine. These assessment tools revealed that urban land use and agricultural land uses were the major sources of water pollution in this river.
Stephano Mambuye Alphayo,
Mahendra Pal Sharma,
Water Quality Mapping of Ruvu River in Tanzania, American Journal of Applied Scientific Research.
Vol. 4, No. 4,
2018, pp. 52-59.
UNESCO, Nature-Based solutions for water. Paris, France: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 2018.
A. Kumar, M. P. Sharma, and N. S. Yadav, “Assessment of Water Quality Changes at Two Locations of Chambal River: M. P,” J. Mater. Environ. SCI., Vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 1781–1785, 2014.
C. J. Rickwood and G. M. Carr, “Development and sensitivity analysis of a global drinking water quality index,” Environ. Monit. Assess., Vol. 156, no. 1–4, pp. 73–90, Oct. 2009.
R. K. Rai, “Water Quality Index and Status,” in The Yamuna River Basin, vol. 66, no. 1974, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2012, pp. 307–356.
S. Tyagi, B. Sharma, P. Singh, and R. Dobhal, “Water Quality Assessment in Terms of Water Quality Index,” Am. J. Water Resour., Vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 34–38, 2013.
M. P. Sharma, S. K. Singal, and S. Patra, “Water Quality Profile of Yamuna River, India,” Hydro Nepal J. Water, Energy Environ., Vol. 3, no. 0, pp. 27–32, 2009.
S. M. Liou, S. Lien-Lo, and C. Yao-Hu, “Application of two-stage fuzzy set theory to river quality evaluation in Taiwan,” Water Res., Vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 1406–1416, Sep. 2003.
A. K. Sharda and M. P. Sharma, “Water quality assessment of Swan River in Himachal Pradesh, India,” Int. J. Environ. SCI., Vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 402–414, 2013.
A. A. Bordalo, W. Nilsumranchit, and K. Chalermwat, “Water quality and uses of the Bangpakong River (Eastern Thailand),” Water Res., Vol. 35, no. 15, pp. 3635–3642, Aug. 2001.
L. Sliva and D. D. Williams, “Buffer zone versus the whole catchment approaches to studying land use impact on river water quality,” Water Res., vol. 35, no. 14, pp. 3462–3472, 2001.
S. T. Y. Tong and W. L. Chen, “Modeling the relationship between land use and surface water quality,” J. Environ. Manage., vol. 66, no. 4, pp. 377–393, 2002.
J. Zhao, L. Lin, K. Yang, Q. Liu, and G. Qian, “Influences of land use on water quality in a reticular river network area: A case study in Shanghai, China,” Landsc. Urban Plan., vol. 137, pp. 20–29, 2015.
Q. Guo, K. Ma, L. Yang, and K. He, “Testing a Dynamic Complex Hypothesis in the Analysis of Land Use Impact on Lake Water Quality,” Water Resour. Manag., vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 1313–1332, 2010.
X. Wang, “Integrating water-quality management and land-use planning in a watershed context,” J. Environ. Manage., vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 25–36, 2001.
J. Fiquepron, S. Garcia, and A. Stenger, “Land use impact on water quality: Valuing forest services in terms of the water supply sector,” J. Environ. Manage., vol. 126, pp. 113–121, 2013.
M. L. Calijuri, J. de S. Castro, L. S. Costa, P. P. Assemany, and J. E. M. Alves, “Impact of land use/land cover changes on water quality and hydrological behaviour of an agricultural subwatershed,” Environ. Earth Sci., vol. 74, no. 6, pp. 5373–5382, 2015.
U. Seeboonruang, “A statistical assessment of the impact of land uses on surface water quality indexes,” J. Environ. Manage., vol. 101, pp. 134–142, 2012.
J. Ding, Y. Jiang, L. Fu, Q. Liu, Q. Peng, and M. Kang, “Impacts of Land Use on Surface Water Quality in a Subtropical River Basin: A Case Study of the Dongjiang River Basin, Southeastern China,” Water, vol. 7, no. 8, pp. 4427–4445, 2015.
M. Kändler et al., “Impact of land use on water quality in the upper Nisa catchment in the Czech Republic and in Germany,” Sci. Total Environ., vol. 586, pp. 1316–1325, 2017.
T. Atlas, “‘Maps and Online Resources,’” Pinterest. 23-Dec-2017.
USGS, “Remote-Sensing Image - U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center,” Oct-2011.
Ministry of Water, “Wami/Ruvu and its associated Coast Rivers | Ministry of Water and Irrigation.” 30-Sep-2017.
L. S. Clesceri, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. American Public Health Association, 1998.
APHA, “Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater,” American Public Health Association (APHA): Washington, DC, USA. 2005.
T. William A., Indicators of Environmental Quality. Boston, MA: Springer US, 1975.
A. Sargaonkar and V. Deshpande, “Development of an Overall Index of Pollution for Surface Water Based on a General Classification Scheme in Indian Context,” Environ. Monit. Assess., vol. 89, no. 1, pp. 43–67, Sep. 2003.
USGS, “U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center. Landsat 8 Surface Reflectance Code (LASRC),” 30-Sep-2017. [Online]. Available: https://landsat.usgs.gov.
W. A. Thomas, Indicators of Environmental Quality. Boston, MA: Springer US, 1975.
S. M. Alphayo and M. P. Sharma, “Water Quality Assessment of Ruvu River in Tanzania Using NSFWQI,” J. Sci. Res. Reports, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 1–9, 2018.