Effect of Training on Body Composition, Physiological and Biochemical Variables of Field Hockey Players
Advances in Applied Physiology
Volume 1, Issue 2, April 2016, Pages: 31-37
Received: Dec. 22, 2015; Accepted: Dec. 29, 2015; Published: Jan. 18, 2016
Views 5287      Downloads 199
Indranil Manna, Department of Physiology, Midnapore College (Autonomous), Midnapore, West Bengal, India
Gulshan Lal Khanna, Department of Health Sciences, ManavRachana International University, Faridabad, India
Prakash Chandra Dhara, Department of Human Physiology, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore, West Bengal, India
Article Tools
Follow on us
The aim of study was to investigate the effect of training on selected anthropometric, physiological and biochemical variables of Indian under 23 year field hockey players. A total of 30 male field hockey players (age: 19.00-22.99 years; mean age: 20.9 ± 1.0 yr) volunteered for this study. The training sessions were divided into 2 phases (a) Preparatory Phase (PP, 8 weeks) and (b) Competitive Phase (CP, 4 weeks). The training programme consist of aerobic, anaerobic and skill development, and were completed 4 hrs/day; 5 days/week. Selected variables were measured at zero level (baseline data, BD) and at the end of PP and CP.A significant (P<0.05) reduction in percent body fat, recovery heart rate, hemoglobin, total cholesterol, triglyceride; and significant (P<0.05) increase in anaerobic power, back and grip strength, serum urea, serum uric acid, HDLC level were noted among the players after the training. However, no significant difference was observed in stature, body mass and LBM, maximal heart rate (HRmax), VO2max and LDLC level among the players after the training. Since the data on field hockey players are limited in India, the present study may provide useful information to the coaches to develop their training programme.
Body Composition, Heart Rate, VO2max, Anaerobic Power, Strength, Lipid Profile
To cite this article
Indranil Manna, Gulshan Lal Khanna, Prakash Chandra Dhara, Effect of Training on Body Composition, Physiological and Biochemical Variables of Field Hockey Players, Advances in Applied Physiology. Vol. 1, No. 2, 2016, pp. 31-37. doi: 10.11648/j.aap.20160102.13
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Bompa T.O., Periodization Training for Sports, Human Kinetics, Champaign, IL 1999.
Montgomery D.L., Physiological profile of professional hockey players - a longitudinal comparison. Appl Physiol Nutr Metabol, 2006, 31, 181-185.
Quinney H.A., Dewart R., Game A., Snydmiller G., Warburton D.,Bell G., A 26 year physiological description of a National Hockey League team. Appl Physiol Nutr Metabol, 2008, 33, 753-760.
Nielsen M.S., Weber R.E., Antagonistic interaction between oxygenation-linked lactate and CO2 binding to human hemoglobin. Comp Biochem Physiol MolInte Physiol, 2007, 146, 429-434.
Suhr F., Porten S., Hertrich T., Brixius K., Schmidt A., Platen P. et al., Intensive exercise induces changes of endothelial nitric oxide synthase pattern in human erythrocytes.Nitric Oxide, 2009, 20, 95-103.
Urhausen A., Kindermann W., Diagnosis of over training: what tools do we have? Sports Med, 2002, 32, 95-102.
Kelley G. A., Kelley K.S., Impact of progressive resistance training on lipids and lipoproteins in adults: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Pre Med, 2009, 48, 9-19.
Apostolidis N., Bogdanis G. C., Kostopoulos N., Souglis A., Papadopoulos C., Changes in the lipid profile of elite basketball and soccer players after a match. Res Sports Med, 2014, 22, 100-110.
Jonson B. L., Nelson J.K., Practical measurements for evaluation in physical education, Macmillan Publishing Co, London 1996.
Durnin J.V.G.A., Womersley J., Body fat assessed from total body density and its estimation from skin fold thickness: measurements on 481 men and women from 16 to 72 years. Br J Nutr, 1974, 32, 77-97.
Siri W.E., The gross composition of the body. In: Tobias C.A., Lawrence J.H. (ed.), Advances in Biological and Medical Physics, Academic Press, New York 1956, 239-280.
Astrand P.O., Rodhal K., Textbook of work physiology, McGraw-Hill, New York 1986.
Inbar O., Bar-Or O., Skinner J.S., The Wingate anaerobic test, Human Kinetics, Champaign IL 1996.
Mukharjee K.L., Medical laboratory technology. A procedure manual for routine diagnostic tests, Vol I – III. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi 1997.
Wybenga R., Di Giorgio J., Pileggi V.J., Manual and automated methods for urea nitrogen measurement in whole serum. ClinChem, 1971, 17, 891-895.
Martinek R.G., Review of methods for determining inorganic phosphorus in biological fluids. J Am Med Technol, 1970, 32, 237.
Schettler G., Nussei E., Manahmen zur Prävention der Arteriosklerose. Arb Med Soz Med Prav Med, 1975, 10, 25.
Wybenga R., Pileggi V.J., Dirstine P.H., Di Giorgio J., Direct manual determination of serum total cholesterol with a single stable reagent. ClinChem, 1970, 16, 980-984.
Friedewald W.T., Levy R.I., Fredrickson D.S., Estimation of the concentration of low density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. ClinChem, 1972, 18, 499-501.
Katch V.L., Mc Ardle W.D., Katch F.I., Essentials of Exercise Physiology, 4th ed. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia PA 2011.
Astorino T.A., Tam P.A., Rietschel J.C., Johnson S.M., Freedman T.P., Changes in physical fitness parameters during a competitive field hockey season. J Stren Cond Res, 2004, 18, 850-854.
Grant J.A., Bedi A., Kurz J., Bancroft R., Gagnier J.J., Miller B.S., Ability of preseason body composition and physical fitness to predict the risk of injury in male collegiate hockey players. Sports Health, 2015, 7, 45-51.
Ebben W.P., Carroll R.M., Simenz C.J., Strength and conditioning practices of National Hockey League strength and conditioning coaches. J Stren Cond Res, 2004, 18, 889-897.
Kargotich S., Keast D., Goodman C., Bhagat C.I., Joske D.J., Dawson B. et al., Monitoring 6 weeks of progressive endurance training with plasma glutamine. Int J Sports Med, 2007, 28, 211-216.
Suhr F., Porten S., Hertrich T., Brixius K., Schmidt A., Platen P. et al., Intensive exercise induces changes of endothelial nitric oxide synthase pattern in human erythrocytes.Nitric Oxide, 2009, 20, 95-103.
Fujitsuka S., Koike Y., Isozaki A., Nomura Y., Effect of 12 weeks of strenuous physical training on hematological changes. Mil Med, 2005, 170, 590-594.
Francisco J.O., Manuel R., Manuel R.P., Regular physical activity increases glutathione peroxidase activity in adolescents with Down syndrome. Clin J Sports Med, 2006, 16, 355-356.
Pialoux V., Mounier R., Ponsot E., Effects of exercise and training in hypoxia on antioxidant/pro-oxidant balance. Eu J ClinNutr, 2006, 60, 1345-1354.
Tsahar E., Arad Z., Izhaki I., Guglielmo C.G.,The relationship between uric acid and its oxidative product allantoin: a potential indicator for the evaluation of oxidative stress in birds. J Comp Physiol, 2006, 176, 653-661.
Mazloom Z., Salehi M., Eftekhari M.H., Blood lipid and lipoprotein profile of female athletes with respect to their jobs and nutrients intake. Pak J BiolSci, 2008, 11, 142-144.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186