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The Pentalogy of Cantrell: A Case Report
American Journal of Pediatrics
Volume 6, Issue 3, September 2020, Pages: 268-272
Received: Jun. 17, 2020; Accepted: Jul. 2, 2020; Published: Jul. 13, 2020
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Ni Nyoman Anik Cindi Yuliastini, Department of Child Health, Sanglah Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University, Denpasar, Indonesia
I Made Kardana, Department of Child Health, Sanglah Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University, Denpasar, Indonesia
Kadek Deddy Ariyanta, Department of Surgery, Sanglah Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University, Denpasar, Indonesia
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Pentalogy of Cantrell (PC) is a rare anomaly marked by the coexistence of omphalocele and ectopia cordis. Pentalogy of Cantrell comprises of the following five characteristics: midline, upper abdominal wall disorder (e.g. omphalocele, gastroschisis); defect of lower sternum (i.e. cleft sternum or absent sternum); anterior diaphragmatic defect (i.e. hypoplastic diaphragm, anterior diaphragmatic hernia); pericardial abnormality (e.g. ectopia cordis); congenital abnormalities of the heart (e.g. tetralogy of Fallot, ventricular septal defect, atrial septal defect). Toyama classified this syndrome into: class I – the occurrence of all 5 defects; class – II the occurrence of 4 defects with intracardiac and ventral abdominal wall abnormalities definitely present; class III – an incomplete expression of the disorders showing various combinations of defects, although sternal anomalies are definitely present. The incidence is estimated 5.5 – 7.9 per 1 million live births with male predominance. PC can be diagnosed since antenatal through ultrasonography examination. Unfortunately, the mortality rate is quite high with minimal survival rate even with surgical reconstruction. We present a case of one-day old infant whom was referred from West Nusa Tenggara with suspicion of PC syndrome and neonatal pneumonia. The baby was born through cesarean section with mild asphyxia, birth weight was 3000 gram and body length was 48 cm. There was no family and pregnancy risk factor. The multidisciplinary team consist of neonatologist, pediatric cardiologist and pediatric surgeon was teamed up to handle this case. There were some abnormalities in complete blood counts such as decreasing number of lymphocyte and neutrophil percentage and also increasing basophil percentage. Chest and abdominal X-ray showed a suspicion of pneumonia but this didn’t align with our physical examination. Echocardiography showed the infant had congenital heart defects such as Taussig Bing anomaly, single atrium, mild valvular pulmonary stenosis, mild tricuspid regurgitation and mesocardia. Genetic testing and further radiologic examination other than plain X-ray were not done in this case. There was no further intervention for this patient other than regular echocardiography and antibiotic topical treatment.
Pentalogy of Cantrell, Ectopia Cordis, Omphalocele
To cite this article
Ni Nyoman Anik Cindi Yuliastini, I Made Kardana, Kadek Deddy Ariyanta, The Pentalogy of Cantrell: A Case Report, American Journal of Pediatrics. Vol. 6, No. 3, 2020, pp. 268-272. doi: 10.11648/j.ajp.20200603.25
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