American Journal of Pediatrics
Volume 6, Issue 3, September 2020, Pages: 259-267
Received: Jun. 17, 2020;
Accepted: Jul. 2, 2020;
Published: Jul. 13, 2020
Views 137 Downloads 45
Putu Tarita Susanti, Department of Child Health, Sanglah Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University, Denpasar, Indonesia
I Made Kardana, Department of Child Health, Sanglah Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University, Denpasar, Indonesia
Kadek Deddy Ariyanta, Department of Surgery, Sanglah Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University, Denpasar, Indonesia
Tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF/TOF) represents one of the most rare congenital anomaly in pediatric centers. Its an abnormal connection (fistula) between esophagus and trachea, characterized by copious salivation associated with choking, coughing, vomiting, cyanosis coincident with the onset of feeding and aspiration. Tracheoesophageal fistula commonly associated with other congenital anomaly, particularly cardiac defects. Diagnose can be established early during antenatal care by ultrasonography and postnatal by babygram and esophagography. Definitive management of TEF is surgical procedure. In this study we want to present outcome of our patients with tracheoesophageal fistula. Three cases were identified as tracheoesophageal fistula type C. The first and second case suffered vomit after feeding, then underwent esophagography examination and got surgical procedure. The third case showed difficult entry of feeding tube and hypersalivation but did not get other supporting examinations due to worsening condition. The first case with stable condition and discharge from hospital, meanwhile the second and third case passed away due to severe comorbid. Tracheoesophageal fistula diagnosis should be done immediately for planning surgery procedure. Supportive management would be needed if there are comorbid diseases. The prognosis of TEF is determined by clinical improvement after surgery and comorbid disease.
Putu Tarita Susanti,
I Made Kardana,
Kadek Deddy Ariyanta,
Tracheoesophageal Fistula Newborn Presentation and Outcome: Case Series, American Journal of Pediatrics.
Vol. 6, No. 3,
2020, pp. 259-267.
Depaepe A., Dolk H., Lechat M. F. The epidemiology of tracheooesophageal fistula and Oesophageal atresia in Europe: EUROCAT working group. Arch Dis Child. 1993; 68: 743-48.
Al-Rawi O., Booker P. D. Oesophageal atressia and trachea-oesophageal fistula. Contin Educ Anaesth Crit Care Pain 2007; 7 (1): 15-9.
Harmon C. M., Coran A. G. Congenital anomalies of esophagus. In: Coran A. G, Adzick N. S, Krummel T. M., et al, editors. Pediatric Surgery. 7th eds. Elsevier Saunders. 2012: 893-918.
Pedersen R. N., Calzolari E., Husby S., et al. Oesophageal atresia: prevalence, prenatal diagnosis and associated anomalies in 23 European regions. Arch Dis Child. 2012; 97: 227-32.
Pretorius D. H., Drose J. A., Dennis M. A., Manchester D. K., Manco J. M. Tracheoesophageal fistula in utero. Twenty-two cases. J Ultrasound Med. 1987; 6: 509.
Vijayaraghavan B. S. Antenatal diagnosis of esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula. J Ultrasound Med. 1996; 15: 417-9.
Spitz L. Esophageal atresia. Lessons I have learned in a 40-year experience. J Pediatr Surg. 2006; 41 (10): 1635-40.
Houben C. H., Curry J. I. Current status of prenatal diagnosis, operative management and outcome of esophageal atresia/tracheo-esophageal fistula. Prenat Diagn. 2008; 28 (7): 667-75.
Nagata K., Kamio Y., Ichikawa T., Kadokura M., Kitami A., Endo S., Inoue H., Kudo S. E. Congenital tracheoesophageal fistula successfully diagnosed by CT esophagography. World J. Gastroenterol. 2006; 12 (9): 1476-8.
Fitoz S., Atasoy C., Yagmurlu A. three-dimensional CT of congenital esophageal atresia and distal tracheoesophageal fistula in neonates: preliminary results. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2000; 175 (5): 1403–1407.
Bradshaw C. J., Thakkar H., Knutzen L., Marsh R., Pacilli M., et al. Accuracy of prenatal detection of tracheoesophageal fistula and oesophageal atresia. Journal of Pediatric Surgery. 2016; 51 (8): 1268-72.
Waterston Dj, Bonham-Carter Re, Aberdeen E. Congenital trachea-oesophageal fistula in association with oesophageal atresia. Lancet. 1963 Jul 13; 2 (7298): 55-7.
Gross, R. E. The surgery of infancy and childhood. Philadelphia, WB Saunders; 1953.
Garcia H., Gutierrez M. F. Multidiscplinary management of patients with Esophageal atresia. Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex. 2011; 68 (6): 432-9.
Meier J. D., Sulman C. G., Almond P. S., et al. Endoscopic management of recurrent congenital tracheoesophageal fistula: a review of techniques and results. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2007; 71: 691-7.
Peetsold M. G., Heij H. A., Nagelkerke A. F., et al. Pulmonary function impairment after tracheo-esophgeal fistula: a minor role for gastro-esophageal reflux disease. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2011; 46: 348-55.
Kovesi T., Rubin S. Long-term complications of congenital esophageal atresia and/or tracheoesophageal fistula. Chest. 2004; 126: 915-25.
Lopez P. J., Keys C., Pierro A., Drake D. P., Kiely E. M., Curry J. I., Spitz L. Oesophageal atresia: improved outcome in high-risk groups. J Pediatr Surg. 2006; 41: 331-4.
Shah R., Varjavandi V., Krishnan U. Predictive factors for complications in children with esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula. Diseases of the Esophagus. 2015; 28: 216-23.
Faugli A., Emblem R., Bjornland K., Diseth T. H. Mental health in infants with esophageal atresia. Infant Ment. Health J. 2009; 30: 40-56.
Nomura A., Yamoto M., Fukumoto K., Takahashi T., Ohyama K., et al. Evaluation of developmental prognosis for esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula. Pediatr Surg Int. 2017; 33 (10): 1091-95.
Spitz L., Kiely E. M., Morecroft J. A., Drake D. P. Oesophageal atresia: at-risk groups for the 1990s. J Pediatr Surg. 1994; 29: 723-5.