Lead Exposure and Liver Function Parameters in Iraqi Workers
American Journal of Biological and Environmental Statistics
Volume 5, Issue 3, September 2019, Pages: 42-45
Received: Jun. 14, 2019; Accepted: Aug. 28, 2019; Published: Sep. 16, 2019
Views 66      Downloads 13
Kahtan Ahmed Al-Mzaien, Medical Laboratory Technique, Dijlah University College, Baghdad, Iraq
Meena Mohammed Abdul-Hussein, Medical Laboratory Technique, Dijlah University College, Baghdad, Iraq
Jafar Ihsan Hussein, Medical Laboratory Technique, Dijlah University College, Baghdad, Iraq
Ahmed Abdul-Qadir, Medical Laboratory Technique, Dijlah University College, Baghdad, Iraq
Sufian Abdul-Rahman, Medical Laboratory Technique, Dijlah University College, Baghdad, Iraq
Hussam-Aldeen Sami, Medical Laboratory Technique, Dijlah University College, Baghdad, Iraq
Article Tools
Follow on us
This study was conducted to evaluate the incidence of long term exposure to lead in some biomarkers of liver functions of Iraqi workers. A total ninety –two (92) adult Iraqi workers with a mean ages (37 ± 1.107 years) were distributed as follows; twenty eight (28) gasoline filling station workers, thirty one (31) battery workers and thirty three (33) brick manufacturing industry workers as well as, eighteen (18) control subjects were not in any way occupationally exposed to lead were involved in this study. The lead level was measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometer method. The blood lead level (BLL) among gasoline station, battery and brick kiln workers were (24.96 ± 0.76, 24.7 ± 0.77 and 24.63 ± 0.81μg/dL, respectively), and the corresponding values for the control group was significantly (p < 0.001) lower (18.88 ± 0.51μg/dL). Significant (p<0.05) elevation in serum alanine transaminase (ALT) activity in gasoline filling station workers, battery manufacture and brick kiln workers among the control group was recorded, while no significant change in serum aspartate transaminase (AST) of all workers versus control was observed. Moreover, significant (p<0.01) increase in alkaline phosphatase activity in the serum of all workers as compared to the control group was recorded. On the other hand, no significant change was listed in albumin and bilirubin in all lead exposed groups. It can be concluded that occupational exposure to lead in Iraq is associated with significant increase of lead level, increased prevalence of lead toxicity and liver dysfunction.
Component, Occupational Exposure, Blood Lead Level, Biochemical Parameters, Gasoline Station, Battery, Brick Kiln Workers
To cite this article
Kahtan Ahmed Al-Mzaien, Meena Mohammed Abdul-Hussein, Jafar Ihsan Hussein, Ahmed Abdul-Qadir, Sufian Abdul-Rahman, Hussam-Aldeen Sami, Lead Exposure and Liver Function Parameters in Iraqi Workers, American Journal of Biological and Environmental Statistics. Vol. 5, No. 3, 2019, pp. 42-45. doi: 10.11648/j.ajbes.20190503.12
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. (ATSDR) Atlanta, Georgia, USA: US Department of health and human services. Draft toxicological profile for lead. ATSDR 2005; 102-225.
Papp JF, Bray EL, Edelstein DL, Fenton MD, Guberman DE, Hedrick JB, Jorgenson J D, Kuck PH, Shedd KB and Tolcin AC. Factors that influence the price of Al, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Rare Earth Elements, and Zn: U. S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008; 1356, p. 61.
Se Hc, Seon BY, Jae WL, Duk JL. What caused hemolytic anaemia and colicky abdominal pain? Lead! Korean J Intern Med 2013; 28: 504: 6.
QASIM, Saeeda Fouzia; BALOCH, Malka. Lead toxicity in battery workers. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak, 2014, 24.11 Suppl 3: S284-286.
Onyeneke, E. C., & Omokaro, E. U. (2016). Effect of occupational exposure to lead on liver function parameters. Int. J. Pharm. Med. Sci, 6, 15-19.‏
Green, R. M.; Flamm, S. AGA technical review on the evaluation of liver chemistry tests. Gastroenterology 2002, 123, 1367–1384.
Mohammed, Sirwan M. "Hematological, Biochemical and Blood Lead Level Profile among Gasoline Exposed Station Workers in Sulaimaniya City." ARO-The Scientific Journal of Koya University2.1 (2016): 6-11.‏
Zuhir, O. 2007. Determination of Blood Lead Levels in Traffic- and Gasoline Exposed Professionals in Khartoum State- Sudan, M. Sc. thesis, O. I. U. Khartoum, Sudan, pp. 22-40.
Saeed, H S, Abdelmonem M. Abdellah, Fatima Altayib Alasha Abdalla, Aghaei afshar Abbas, F. Adam and Nafisa A. Elgazali. “Biochemical Effects of Lead Toxicity on Serum Total Protein, Albumin and Globulin Levels in Occupationally Exposed Workers in Major Sudanese Cities.” (2017).
NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health). 1978. ‘criteria for a recommended standard occupational exposure to Inorganic lead –Revised Criteria’ Cincinnati, DHEW (NIOSH) publication No. 78, pp 158.
SIKDER, Abdul Halim Farhad, et al. Lead and cadmium accumulation in nearby brick kiln Agri-environmental ecosystems. Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research, 2015, 28.1: 51-59.
Kim YJ: Interpretation of liver function tests. Korean J Gastroenterol 2008, 51 (4): 219–224. Korean.
Kamiike W, Fujikawa M, Sumimura J, Miyata M, Kawashima Y, Wada H, TAgawa K: Differential patterns of leakage of cytosolic and mitochondrial enzymes. Clin Chim Acta 1989, 185: 265–270.
ŢINCU, RADU CIPRIAN, et al. Biochemical parameters changes induced by lead exposure.‏ FARMACIA 2016, 64: 2.
Dongre NN, Suryakar AN, Patil AJ, Rathi DB. Occupational lead exposure in automobile workers in North Karnataka (India): effect on liver and kidney functions. Al Ameen J Med Sci 2010; 3 (4): 284-92.
Mudipalli A. Lead hepatotoxicity & potential health effects. Indian J Med Res 2007 Dec 1; 126 (6): 518.
Aziz II, Al Agha SZ. Hematological and Biochemical Studies for Gasoline Toxicity Among Gasoline Workers In Gaza Strip. AlAgsa Univ. J 2006; 10: 41-55.
Bislimi K, Behluli A, Halili J, Mazreku I, Osmani F, Fetahu SH, Halili F. Some Biochemical Parameters and Level of Concentration of Lead in Blood of Battery Factory Workers in Mitrovica. 13th SGEM Geo Conference on Ecology, Economics, Education And Legislation, www.sgem.org, SGEM2013 Conference Proceedings, 2013; 1: 891-896.
Akram Umran Hasan, Measurement of Some Biochemical Markers Level in Blood of Mercury Exposure Workers, [Ph. D Thesis]. College of Science: Baghdad University; 2013.
Aryapu Raviraja, Gaja Narayanamurthy Vishal Babu, Anita Raghuveer Bijoor, Geraldine Menezes, Thuppil Venkatesh. Lead Toxicity in a Family as a Result of Occupational Exposure. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol 2008; 59: 127-133.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186