Competency Training Models and the Teaching of Apparel Patternmaking in Ghana
International Journal of Vocational Education and Training Research
Volume 4, Issue 2, December 2018, Pages: 48-57
Received: Sep. 18, 2018; Accepted: Oct. 8, 2018; Published: Oct. 30, 2018
Views 443      Downloads 61
Elizabeth Obinnim, Department of Fashion Design and Textiles, Ho Technical University, Ho, Ghana
Ninette Afi Pong, Department of Fashion Design and Textiles Education, University of Education, Winneba, Kumasi, Ghana
Article Tools
Follow on us
Competency-based instruction significantly increases the likelihood of adequately preparing students for the world of work. This is a major objective of TVET. Thus, the goal of this inquiry was to examine competency models and the teaching of apparel patternmaking in Ghana. It identifies the origins and introduction of competency-based training models in Ghana and examines the gaps that exist between the desired competencies needed for teaching the subject successfully and the challenges that are affecting instructors’ competencies. This study employs a descriptive survey design approach; thus, questionnaires were developed and utilised to collect data from the respondents. In order to enable the researchers to use their judgment to select cases that will best facilitate the answering of research questions and meet the objectives of the study, the most common type of non-probability sampling - purposive sampling was used. The sample comprised a total of 119 Participants - eight (8) instructors and one hundred and one (111) students from each of the four Polytechnics. The major empirical findings of the study demonstrate that in CBT, instructors focus their attention on what students have to do and not how they do it. The results also imply that regarding adoption of the different approaches to competency models, the Polytechnics implement competency-based models that are closely aligned with the vision, values and mission which provide broad, quick and consistent impacts. Concerning approaches to teaching apparel pattern making, the results indicate that Polytechnic students are able to transform three-dimensional (3D) fashion designs into two-dimensional (2D) constituent pattern pieces. On strategies to improve competencies, it was discovered that only a few Polytechnics surveyed have sufficient teaching and learning resources for effective academic work.
Apparel, Patternmaking, CBT Models, TVET
To cite this article
Elizabeth Obinnim, Ninette Afi Pong, Competency Training Models and the Teaching of Apparel Patternmaking in Ghana, International Journal of Vocational Education and Training Research. Vol. 4, No. 2, 2018, pp. 48-57. doi: 10.11648/j.ijvetr.20180402.11
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Spöttll, G., (2009). Teacher education for TVET in Europe and Asia: The comprehensive requirements. Journal of Technical Education and Training, 1 (1), p. 1-16.
Atchoarena, D., & Delluc, A. (2002). Revisiting Technical and Vocational Education in SubSaharan Africa: An Update on Trends, Innovations and Challenges. New Trends in Technical and Vocational Education. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP.
Bünning, F., Gleißner, K. Jing, M. & Yang, S. (2011). Initiatives to foster Chinese TVET and TVET Teacher Training. Magdeburg, Germany: UNVEOC Centre.
International Labour Office (ILO). (2010). Teachers and trainers for the future–Technical and vocational education and training in a changing world. Report for discussion at the Global Dialogue Forum on Vocational Education and Training Geneva: ILO.
International Labour Office (ILO) (2008). Conclusions on skills for improved productivity, employment growth and development. International Labour Conference, 97th Session, Geneva: ILO.
Bunning, F. (2007). Approaches to Action Learning in Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) Journal of Sociology, 53 (1), 18–31.
Pongo N. A. & Obinnim, E. (2015). Changing Landscape of Industry Practice: The Role of Quality Technical Vocational Education and Training in Ghana. Arts and Design Studies, Vol. 33, pp. 1–8.
UNESCO (2001). Revised Recommendation concerning Technical and Vocational Education. UNESCO General Conference Paris: Available at
Grootings, P. & Nielsen, S. (Eds). (2005). ETF Yearbook 2005-Teachers and trainers: Professionals and stakeholders in the reform of vocational education and training. Turin: European Training Foundation.
Adotey, J. A., Obinnim, E. & Pongo, N. A (2016). Quality Assurance and Higher Fashion Education in Ghana: Examining the Contemporary Quandary. International Journal of Vocational Education and Training Research. 2 (6), pp. 39-48.
Axmann, M. (2004). Facilitating labour market entry for youth through enterprise-based schemes in vocational education and training and skills development, InFocus Programme on Boosting Employment through Small Enterprise Development Working Paper No. 48, Geneva; ILO.
Johanson, R. K. & van Adams, A. (2004). Skills Development in Sub-Saharan Africa. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Obinnim, E. & Pongo, N. A. (2015). The Significance of Flat Pattern Making in Fashion Designing. International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology. 4 (4), pp. 1850–1857.
Ford, K. (2014). Competency-Based Education: History, Opportunities, and Challenges. Turin: UNESCO.
Guthrie, H. (2009). Competence and competency-based training: What the literature says. National Centre for Vocational Education Research.
ACCI (Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry) (199. The Australian national training system: Guidelines for employers, ACCI, Melbourne.
NCVER (National Centre for Vocational Education Research (2004). Profiling the national vocational education and training workforce, Adelaide: NCVER.
Keating, J. (2008). Current Vocational Education and Training Strategies and Responsiveness to Emerging Skills Shortages, A Well-skilled Future–Tailoring VET to the Emerging Labour Market, Adelaide. NCVER.
UNESCO-UNEVOC. (2012). Strengthening TVET teachers’ education. UNESCO-UNEVOC International Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and Training. TVETTeachers.pdf.
The World Bank (1991) Vocational Education and Training: A World Bank Policy Paper. (Washington DC, the World Bank.
Saluja, S. (1993). Workshop on curriculum development in technical and vocational education.
Earnest, J. (2001). Competency-based Engineering Curricula. An Innovation approaches. From:
Perry, J. & William, G. (1998). How to Develop Competency-based vocational education. Florida: Praken publication.
Brown, P., Lauder, H. & Ashton, D. (2008). Education, Globalisation and the Future of the Knowledge Economy. Europeans Educational Research Journal, 7 (2), 131-156.
World Bank. World Development Report, 2007.
Brown, M., (1994). A Collection of Readings Related to Competency Based Training. Victoria: Deakam University.
Okabe, H., Imaoka, H., Tomika, T. & Niwaya, H. (1992). Three-dimensional apparel CAD system. Computer Graphics, 26 (2), pp. 105-10.
Kopp E., Rolfo, V., Zelin, B. & Gross, L., (1984). How to Draft Basic Patterns. New York: Fairchild Publications.
Joseph Armstrong, H. (2010). Patternmaking for Fashion Design. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.
MacDonald, N. M. (2010). Principles of Flat-Pattern Design (4th edn.) New York: Fairchild Books.
Willett, S., (1990). Syntax and semantics of an image communications language for design management. Design Theory and Methodology, DTM 1990, presented at the 1990 ASME design technical conferences–2nd International Conference on Design Theory and Methodology, Chicago, IL, 16-19 September, pp. 27-32.
Schofield, K & McDonald, R. (2004). Moving on: Report of the high-level review of training packages, Melbourne: Australian National Training Authority.
Harris, R. Guthrie, H. Hobart, B. & Lundberg, D. (1995). Competency-based education and training: Between a rock and a whirlpool. Melbourne: Macmillan.
Le Diest, F. & Winterton, J. (2005). What is competence? Human Resource Development International, 8 (1), pp. 27-46.
Lum, G. (1999). Where’s the competence in competency-based education and training? Journal of Philosophy of Education, 33 (3), pp. 403–18.
Leavy, P. (2017). Research Design: Quantitative, Qualitative, Mixed Methods, Arts-Based, and Community-Based Participatory Research Approaches. Guilford Press.
Creswell, R. (2014). Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. USA: Sage Publications.
Zhi., H. L. (2014). A comparison of convenience sampling and purposive sampling. PubMed, 105-11.
Battaglia, M. P. (2008). Non-Probability Sampling. Encyclopedia of Survey Research Methods. 2008. SAGE Publications, 1-4.
Oppong, S. H. (2013). The problem of sampling in qualitative research. Asian journal of management sciences and education, 1-9.
Hodge, S. & Harris, R. (2012). Discipline, governmentality and 25 years of competency-based training. Studies in the Education of Adults, 44 (2), pp. 155-170.
Boahin, P., Kamphorst, J. C. & Hofman. W. H. A. (2010). Tracer study on the performance of polytechnic graduates in Ghanaian labour market. Accra, Ghana.
Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) (2001). Report of the Study for Development of a Master Plan to Strengthen Technical Education in the Republic of Ghana. Accra: National Council for Tertiary Education.
Pierce, S. (2010). Fashion designing techniques (Online).
Stanley, H. (1999). Flat pattern cutting and modelling for fashion (3rd ed.). United Kingdom: Stanley Thornes (Publishers) Ltd.
Boateng, K., & Ofori-Sarpong. E. (2002). An analytical study of the labour market for graduates in Ghana. World Bank/National Council for Tertiary Education Project. Accra.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186