Task of Local Anaesthesia in Major Maxillofacial Surgical Operations (A 36 Case Series Operated in Al-Salam Teaching Hospital)
International Journal of Clinical Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Volume 6, Issue 1, June 2020, Pages: 12-19
Received: Mar. 11, 2020; Accepted: Apr. 1, 2020; Published: Apr. 23, 2020
Views 266      Downloads 60
Rawaa Younus Al-Rawee, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Al-Salam Teaching Hospital, Ministry of Health, Mosul, Iraq
Amar Yaseen Al-Anee, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Al-Kadhimiya Teaching Hospital, Ministry of Health, Baghdad, Iraq
Saud Salim Saeed, Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care Unit, Al-Salam Teaching Hospital, Ministry of Health, Mosul, Iraq
Bashar Abdul-Ghani Tawfeeq, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Al-Salam Teaching Hospital, Ministry of Health, Mosul, Iraq
Article Tools
Follow on us
Oral and maxillofacial surgery is that specialty of dentistry including the diagnosis as well as surgical and adjunctive treatment of diseases, injuries, and defects, including both the functional and esthetic aspects of hard and soft tissues of oral and maxillofacial region. Local anesthesia (LA) also has role in maxillofacial surgeries, some oral and maxillofacial surgical procedures can, however, be performed, with or without conscious sedation depending on the extent of the lesion and the ease of surgical access. We aim in this article to high lighting role of local anesthesia for surgical management of major maxillofacial operations already planned to be operated under general anaesthesia. Sample presentation of major maxillofacial cases that can be underwent under local anesthesia also patients evaluation regarding pain and wound healing. Case series of 36 patients (5-78) years old, from (2004-2013) attained Maxillofacial department at Al-Salam (Mosul) and Al-Kadhimiya (Baghdad) Teaching Hospital. All patients underwent major surgeries under local anesthesia (5-7 cartridges). Patients evaluated regarding pain, wound healing and recovery period. Five patients had moderate intraoperative pain that forced us to increase the dose of local anesthesia, minimal blood ooze one hour postoperatively; healing process was uncomplicated. In accordance to time need for each surgery half of cases need no more than 30 minutes to complete the surgery. More than half of patients (27.77% -33.33%) recommend 4-5 cartridge of local anesthesia uses to complete the surgeries. Oral and Maxillofacial operations which can be managed under local anesthesia are practicable and were tolerated and accepted by the adult patients. Local anesthesia can be used to facilitate safer and more efficient procedures especially in medically compromised patients. Local anesthesia surgeries alleviate risk factors and laryngeal discomfort associated with surgeries under general anesthesia, no starvation and minimal hospital stay.
Major Maxillofacial Surgeries, Local Anesthesia, General Anesthesia
To cite this article
Rawaa Younus Al-Rawee, Amar Yaseen Al-Anee, Saud Salim Saeed, Bashar Abdul-Ghani Tawfeeq, Task of Local Anaesthesia in Major Maxillofacial Surgical Operations (A 36 Case Series Operated in Al-Salam Teaching Hospital), International Journal of Clinical Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Vol. 6, No. 1, 2020, pp. 12-19. doi: 10.11648/j.ijcoms.20200601.13
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Kelvin Uchenna Omeje, Otasowie D Osunde, Benjamin Fomete, Roland Agbara, Thomas Owobu, Abdul Rasheed Suleiman. Experience with the use of local anesthesia in maxillofacial surgery. Original article. Arch Int Surg. Year: 2018 | Volume: 8 | Issue: 1 | Page: 21-26.
AAPD. Council on Clinical Affairs. Guideline on Use of Local Anesthesia for Pediatric Dental Patients,, Adopted 2005, Revised 2009.
M J Donald, S Derbyshire, Lignocaine toxicity; Emerg Med J 2004; 21: 249-250.
Malamed SF, Daniel L. Handbook of Local Anesthesia. 5th ed. St Louis, MO: Mosby; 2004. p. 79.
Haas DA. An update on local anesthetics in dentistry. J Can Dent Assoc 2002; 68 (9): 546-51.
Malamed SF. Systemic complications. In: Handbook of Local Anesthesia. 5th ed. St. Louis, Mo: Mosby; 2004: 311-25.
Sakuragi T, Ishino H, Dan K. Bactericidal activity of clinically used LA on Staphylococcus aureus. Regional Anesthesia 1996; 21: 239–42.
Aydin ON, Eyigor M, Aydin N. Antimicrobial activity of ropivacaine and other local anaesthetics. EJA 2001; 18: 687–94.
Gomoll AH et al. Chondrolysis after continuous intra-articular bupivacaine infusion. Arthroscopy 2006; 22: 813–19.
N. B. Scott, Wound infiltration for surgery Anaesthesia, 2010, 65 (Suppl. 1), pages 67–75, Journal compilation 2010 AAGBI.
Kazmier FR et al prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of continuous LA in cosmetic breast augmentation. Plast Reconstr Surg 2008; 121: 711–5.
Tebbetts JB. Pain control in augmentation mamma plasty. Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery 2004; 113: 784.
Mahabir RC et al. Locally administered ketorolac and bupivacaine for control of postoperative pain in breast augmentation patients: part II. 10-day follow-up. Plast Reconstr Surg 2008; 121: 638–43.
Malamed SF. Clinical action of specific agents. In: Hand-book of Local Anesthesia. 5th ed. St Louis, Mo: Mosby; 2004: 55-81.
Brown DL, Skiendzielewski JJ. Lidocaine toxicity. Ann Emerg Med1980; 9: 627–9.
Mathias Haefeli, Achim Elfering. Pain assessment. Eur Spine J (2006) 15: S17–S24.
Jame V., Quinn MD., George A., Wells MD. An Assessment of Clinical Wound Evaluation Scales. €DUCATION AND PRACTIC€. Academic Emergency Medicine June 1998, Volume 5, Number 6.
M. H. Ather, Ammara M., M. Sulaiman Urological Surgical Procedures Under LA, Published in print edition March, 2012, Pakistan.
Adeela Malik, Efficacy and Performance of Various Local Anesthesia Modalities for Cataract Surgery, J Clinic Experiment Ophthalmol 2013, S: 1.
Soung Min Kim, Mi Hyun Seo, Hoon Myoung, Jong Ho Lee. Regional anesthesia for maxillofacial surgery in developing countries. J Dent Anesth Pain Med 2016; 16 (4): 245-252. https://doi.org/10.17245/jdapm.2016.16.4.245.
Charlotte De Verbizier, Frédéric Denis, Sahar Moussa-Badran, Laurence Sébastien, Brétaudeau Clara. Infiltration of local anaesthetics associated to oral surgery procedures performed under general anaesthesia. J Oral Med Oral Surg. 2019; 25: 13. https://doi.org/10.1051/mbcb/2018041.
Robert M Jung, Magdalena A Rybak, Paweł T Milner, Natalia Lewkowicz. Local anesthetics and advances in their administration – an overview Journal of Pre-Clinical and Clinical Research, 2017, Vol 11, No 1, 94-101.
Richard C, Pascal J, Martin C. Anesthésie locale et régionale en oto-rhino-laryngologie. EMC _ Oto-Rhino-Laryngol 2011; 6: 1–16.
James I Beck, Kevin D Johnston. Anesthesia for cosmetic and functional maxillofacial surgery. Continuing Education in Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain | Volume 14 Number 1 2014. Downloaded from https://academic. oup.com/bjaed/ article- abstract/14/1/38/336413 by guest on 19 April 2019.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186