Joint Survival Model of CD4 Outcome for HIV/TB Coinfected: Data from Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey
International Journal of Data Science and Analysis
Volume 5, Issue 5, October 2019, Pages: 86-91
Received: Sep. 24, 2019; Accepted: Oct. 22, 2019; Published: Oct. 28, 2019
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Authors
Bernadette Ikandi, Department of Statistics and Actuarial Sciences, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya
Samuel Musili Mwalili, Department of Statistics and Actuarial Sciences, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya
Anthony Wanjoya, Department of Statistics and Actuarial Sciences, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya
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Abstract
HIV infection leads to immune deficiency, increasing the risk of TB in people with HIV. HIV/TB co-infection increases the risk of death from TB or other opportunist infections. CD4 cell counts (cells/mm3) along with viral load are measures of treatment failure. This study purposed to apply shared frailty model in analyzing the survival and hazard rates of the TB/HIV co-infected persons. This work is very important because co-morbidity with TB and HIV is a rambling cause of death in Africa. The research employed a bivariate Gamma Frailty model to get the correlation amongst the HIV/TB outcomes to necessitate valid and reliable statistical inferencing. A survival frailty model on the CD4 counts is developed and fitted to factor in the unobserved heterogeneity that might occur in some observations. Ignoring some unobserved or unmeasured effects gives misguided estimates of survival. Thus, correcting these overdispersion or under-dispersion helps adjust these frailties. Frailty model provided a solid statistical analysis to CD4 data accounting for TB/HIV co-infection. The study also carried out some simulations along with the standard errors to compare the true values of the parameters. From the simulation findings, it is evident that precision and coverage improves with increase in sample size. Data used in this paper is from Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (2012) which comprised of 648 HIV-positive patients, 10978 HIV-negative, and 2094 whose status was unknown. From the results, it is evident that the survival rate for the HIV positive individuals who are TB negative, with CD4 ≤ 310 is higher, at 0.9963 than that of the TB positive persons, at 0.975. The research finding points TB/HIV co-infection as a key factor for predicting immunological failure as measured by CD4 counts. The Kenyan government, and in particular the ministry of health should develop policies that mandate TB diagnosis among the PLHIV and linkage to TB treatment for the positive cases.
Keywords
HIV/TB Coinfection, CD4 Counts, Heterogeneity, Frailty Model, People Living with HIV
To cite this article
Bernadette Ikandi, Samuel Musili Mwalili, Anthony Wanjoya, Joint Survival Model of CD4 Outcome for HIV/TB Coinfected: Data from Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey, International Journal of Data Science and Analysis. Vol. 5, No. 5, 2019, pp. 86-91. doi: 10.11648/j.ijdsa.20190505.12
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Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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