Assessment of Low Temperature Refining Process of Castor Seed Oil for Biodiesel Production
American Journal of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering
Volume 3, Issue 1, June 2019, Pages: 1-6
Received: Sep. 23, 2018;
Accepted: Jan. 2, 2019;
Published: Jan. 29, 2019
Views 769 Downloads 141
Chika Muhammad, Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria
Muhammad Mukhtar, Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria
Muhammad Sabiu Jibrin, Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria
Musa Usman Dabai, Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria
Aliyu Sarkin Baki, Department of Microbiology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria
In recent years research on biodiesel production from non-edible seed oil is receiving more attention to prevent food vs biofuels problems such as starvation in developing countries. Castor seed oil is potential non-edible biodiesel feedstock, but it has high viscosity and high acid value which are among the undesired factors in biodiesel production. The castor seed oil was extracted using soxhlet extraction method, refined using standard analytical methods and its physicochemical properties was determined using ASTM methods. The crude extracts of castor seeds oil which was characterized as high viscous oil, was refined to improve its quality, and physicochemical properties of refined and crude extracts castor seed oil was studies. The crude extracts oil (41.29±1.54%) produce was refined to reduce its high viscosity (233.0±2.00 mm2/s) and acid value (4.488±0.40 mgKOH/g). The viscosity and acid value of the oil significant reduced to 159.0±3.00 mm2/s and 2.805±0.20 mgKOH/g after the refining process. The others physicochemical properties such as flash point, saponification value, iodine value, moisture contents, specific gravity, refractive index, kinematic viscosity, cloud point, pour point and free fatty acids qualities were improved after refining. The study show that refined castor seed oil were more suitable in biodiesel production than crude castor seed oil.
Muhammad Sabiu Jibrin,
Musa Usman Dabai,
Aliyu Sarkin Baki,
Assessment of Low Temperature Refining Process of Castor Seed Oil for Biodiesel Production, American Journal of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering.
Vol. 3, No. 1,
2019, pp. 1-6.
Scholz, V. and da Silva, J. N. Prospects and Risks of the Use of Castor Oil as a Fuel. Biomass and Bioenergy, 32: 95-100. (2008).
Saadia, M. A. Degumming of Soybean Oil. Fats and Oil Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt. 43 Fasc. 5. (1992).
Ismail, S., Ahmad, A. S., Anr, R. and Hamdan, S, Biodiesel Production from Castor Oil by Using Calcium Oxide Derived from Mud Clam Shell. Journal of Renewable Energy, (2016): 5274917, http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/5274917, 12/03/ 2017 at 02:45 pm.
Balat, M. and Balat, H Progress in Biodiesel Processing. Applied Energy, 87: 1815-1835. . (2010).
Conceição, M. M., Candeia, R. A., Silva, F. C., Bezerra, A. F. Fernandes, J. V. J. and Souza, A. G. Thermoanalytical Characterization of Castor Oil Biodiesel. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 11: 964-975. (2007).
Ogunniyi, D. S. Castor oil: A vital industrial raw material. Bioresource Technology, 97:1086-1091. (2006).
Nakarmi, A. and Joshi, S. A study on Castor Oil and its Conversion into Biodiesel by Transesterification Method. Nepal Journal of Science and Technology, 15(1): 45-52. (2014).
Edison M., John K., Philiswa M. and Mohamed B. Optimization of Process Parameters for Castor Oil Production. Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering, 3. WCE, July 4 - 6, 2012, London, UK, ISBN: 978-988-19252-2-0, ISSN: 2078-0958 (Print); ISSN: 2078-0966 (online). (2012).
ASTM, American Standard for Testing of Materials, Characteristics of Jatropha curcas Oil. Journal of American Oil and Chemist Society, 85: 2671–2675. (2008).
Fuduka, H., Kando, A. and Noda, H., Biodiesel Fuel Production by Transesterification of Oils. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, (92): 405–415. (2001).
Akpan, U. G., Jimoh, A. and Mohammed, A. D. Extraction, Characterization and Modification of Castor Seed Oil. Leonardo Journal of Sciences, 8: 43-52. (2006).
Cannon manual, Manual viscometer; Operating Instruement. Cannon Instrument Company, 2139 High Tech Road, State College, PA, Manual No. CM/98-350-B0806, 4- 10. (2017).
Kyari, M. Z. Extraction and Characterization of Seed Oils. Intanational Agrophysiscs, 22: 139-142. (2008).
Gregory, C. R., Smith, R. N. and Simpson, L. Castor Bean Production: The CARDI Experience, Castor Growers Workshop, Jamaica Castor Industry Association (JAMPRO Building), Kingston 10, pp. 10. (2017).
Saribiyik, O. Y., Ŏzcanli, M., Serin, H., Serin, S. and Aydin, K. Biodiesel Production from Ricinus Communis Oil and its Blends with Soybean Biodiesel. StronjniŠki Vestnik- Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 56(12): 811-816. (2010).
Omahu, O. J. and Omale, A. C. Physicochemical Properties and Fatty Acid Composition of castor Bean Ricinus Communis L. Seed Oil. American Journal of Applied and Industrial Chemistry, 3(1): 1-4. (2017). doi: 10.11648/j.ajaic.20170301.11.
Remesh, M., Biodiesel Production: Review. Bioresource Technology, 70: 1–15. (2004).
Encinar, J. M., González, J. F. and Rodríguez, A. R. Biodiesel from Used Frying Oil. Variables Affecting the Yields and Characteristics of the Biodiesel. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 44: 5491-5499. (2005).
Lam, M. K., Lee K. T. and Mohamed, A. R. Homogeneous, Heterogeneous and Enzymatic Catalysis for Transesterification of High Free Fatty Acid Oil (waste cooking oil) to Biodiesel: A Review. Biotechnology Advances, 28: 500-518. (2010).
Sánchez, N., Encinar, J. M., Martinez, G. and González, J. F. Biodiesel Production from Castor Oil under Subcritical Method Conditions. International Journal of Environmental Science and Development. 6(1): 562, (2015). doi: 10.7763/IJESD.2015.
Sattanathan, R. Production of Biodiesel from Castor Oil with its Performance and Emission Test. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), ISSN (online): 2319- 7064. Index Copernicus value (2013): 6.14|Impact Factor (2013): 4.438. (2013).
Rengasamy, M., Mohanraj, S., Vardhan, S. H., Balaji, R. and Pugalenthi V. Transesterification of Castor Oil Using Nano-sized Iron Catalyst for the Production of Biodiesel. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Science, JCHPS Special Issue 2, (2014). ISSN: 0974- 2115.
Encinar, J. M., Gonzalez, J. F., Martinez, G., Sanchez, N. and Gonzalez, C. G. Synthesis and Characterization of Biodiesel Obtained from Castor Oil Transesterification. International Conference on Renewable Energy and Power Quality (ICREPQ 11), 1(9): 1078- 1083. (2010).
Forero, C. L. B. Biodiesel from Castor Oil: a Promising Fuel for Cold Weather. Renewable Energies and Power Quality Journal, 1(3): 59-62. (2005).