Please enter verification code
An Overview of Frequency Control as a Criterion of Power System Reliability and International Survey of Determining Operating Reserve
American Journal of Modern Energy
Volume 3, Issue 5, October 2017, Pages: 101-114
Received: Oct. 6, 2017; Accepted: Oct. 23, 2017; Published: Oct. 28, 2017
Views 2100      Downloads 395
Md Saleh Ebn Sharif, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Mahmud-Ul-Tarik Chowdhury, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA
Md Janatul Ferdous, Department of Electrical, Electronic and Communication Engineering, Military Institute of Science and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Md Moniruzzaman, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Md Monower Zahid Khan, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
Article Tools
Follow on us
In this paper an extensive literature review of power system frequency control regulation and in relation to this, operating reserve determination policy have been highlighted. In terms of power system reliability and stability aspect, frequency control mechanism is the most important factor; hence there is a need for sufficient capacity reserve in case of contingency. An investigation of operating reserve policy in different regions, e.g., US, Canada, Europe and Asia have been conducted to clearer understand of reserve policy. It has been identified that, probabilistic approach is the best suited for determining generation adequacy in terms of economic and reliability point of view. Different type of reserve is allocated at different level of frequency control level. So, technical specification and timing for frequency control level of different system operator have been discussed widely. A comparison of frequency control framework between European and US is also presented. To ensure reliability and stability, it is recommended to adopt special protection scheme alongside new technologies – WAMS, SmartGrid.
Frequency Control, Operating Reserve, Reliability, Ancillary Services, Probabilistic Approach, Power System Operation, Energy Efficiency, Renewable Integration
To cite this article
Md Saleh Ebn Sharif, Mahmud-Ul-Tarik Chowdhury, Md Janatul Ferdous, Md Moniruzzaman, Md Monower Zahid Khan, An Overview of Frequency Control as a Criterion of Power System Reliability and International Survey of Determining Operating Reserve, American Journal of Modern Energy. Vol. 3, No. 5, 2017, pp. 101-114. doi: 10.11648/j.ajme.20170305.14
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Jaleeli, Nasser, Louis S. Van Slyck, Donald N. Ewart, “Understanding automatic generation control,” IEEE transactions on power systems 7, no. 3 (1992): 1106-1122.
Berkel, Felix, Daniel Gorges, and Steven Liu, “Load-frequency control, economic dispatch and unit commitment in smart microgrids based on hierarchical model predictive control,” Decision and Control (CDC), 2013 IEEE 52nd Annual Conference, IEEE, 2013.
Jan Machowski, Janusz W. Bialek, James R. Bumby, “Power System Dynamics and Stability,” John Wiley & Sons, 1997.
Allan, R. N, “Reliability evaluation of power systems,” Springer Science & Business Media, 2013
NERC, CASIO., “Special Reliability Assessment: Maintaining Bulk Power SystembReliability While Integrating Variable Energy Resources – CAISO Approach,” NERC, 2013.
Milligan, Michael, et al, “Operating reserves and wind power integration: An international comparison,” proc. 9th International Workshop on large-scale integration of wind power into power systems. 2010.
J. F. Prada, “The Value of Reliability in Power Systems Pricing Operating Reserves”, Energy lab, MIT, Jun. 1985.
Boroujeni, Hasan Fayazi, Meysam Eghtedari, Mostafa Abdollahi, “Calculation of generation system reliability index: Loss of Load Probability,” Life Science Journal 9, no. 4 (2012): 4903-4908.
Dawes, Brett, and Kwan-Wu Chin, “A comparison of deterministic and probabilistic methods for indoor localization,” Journal of Systems and Software 84.3 (2011): 442-451.
Rao, Meesala Srinivasa, And Vallayil Na Naikan, “Review of Simulation Approaches in Reliability and Availability Modeling,” International Journal of Performability Engineering 12, no. 4 (2016).
Carvalho, Leonel de Magalhães,” Using evolutionary swarms (EPSO) in power system reliability indices calculation,” U. PORTO, 2013.
Al-Alawi, Ameer, Makarand Nagle, and Jinxiang Zhu,”Utilizing reliability indices to study generation adequacy,” In Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exposition, 2010 IEEE PES, pp. 1-5. IEEE, 2010.
Md Saleh Ebn Sharif, Mahmud-Ul-Tarik Chowdhury, Md Janatul Ferdous, Md Moniruzzaman, “An Efficient Method for Power System Frequency Control and Optimal Reserve Determination Considering Probabilistic Loss-of-Load Expectation Risk Index,” IEEE, EICT 2017, KUET.
IK Odinakaeze, “Assessment of spinning reserve requirements in a deregulated system,” USASK, Canada, 2010.
Randell M. Johnson, “Integrated Resource Planning with PLEXOS, World Bank Thirsty Energy - A Technical Workshop,” Morocco, 2014.
Song, Z., Goel, L., & Wang, P., “Risk based spinning reserve allocation in deregulated power systems,” IEE Proceedings-Generation, Transmission and Distribution, 2 491-4, 2004.
Song, Z., Goel, L., & Wang, P. (2005), “Optimal spinning reserve allocation in deregulated power systems,” IEE Proceedings-Generation, Transmission and Distribution, 152(4), 483-8.
Hamon, Camille, “On frequency control schemes in power systems with large amounts of wind power,” PhD diss., KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012.
ENTSO, “European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity (ENTSO-E),” Operation handbook, Appendix 1, Load-Frequency Control and Performance.’ 2004.
Sanghvi, Arun P., Neal J. Balu, and Mark G. Lauby, “Power system reliability planning practices in North America,” IEEE transactions on power systems 6, no. 4 (1991): 1485-1492.
North American Electric Reliability Corporation, “Reliability Standards for the Bulk Electric Systems of North America,” NERC, November 2009.
Bevrani, Hassan, “Robust power system frequency control,” Vol. 85. New York: Springer, 2009.
Egea-Alvarez, Agustí, Jef Beerten, Dirk Van Hertem, and Oriol Gomis-Bellmunt, “Hierarchical power control of multiterminal HVDC grids,” Electric Power Systems Research 121 (2015): 207-215.
ENTSO – Policy 1, “Load-Frequency Control, Final policy,” 2014.
Greacen, Chris, Richard Engel, and Thomas Quetchenbach, “A Guidebook on Grid Interconnection and Islanded Operation of Mini-Grid Power Systems Up to 200 kW,” 2013.
Pavlovsky, V., and A. Steliuk, “Modeling of Automatic Generation Control in Power Systems.’ In PowerFactory Applications for Power System Analysis,”, pp. 157-173. Springer International Publishing, 2014.
Bevrani, Hassan, and Takashi Hiyama, “Intelligent automatic generation control,” CRC press, 2016.
Yahia Baghzouz, “Power System Operation and Control,” University of Nevada, Las Vegas, [Online]. Available at: http://www.egr. unlv. edu/~eebag/4.pdf
Ela, Erik, Michael Milligan, and Brendan Kirby, “Operating reserves and variable generation,” Contract 303 (2011): 275-3000.
Teng, Fei, Marko Aunedi, Danny Pudjianto, and Goran Strbac., “Benefits of demand-side response in providing frequency response service in the future GB power system,” Frontiers in Energy Research 3 (2015): 36.
Rebours, Yann G., Daniel S. Kirschen, Marc Trotignon, and Sbastien Rossignol, “A survey of frequency and voltage control ancillary services—Part I: Technical features,” IEEE Transactions on power systems 22, no. 1 (2007): 350-357.
Rebours, Yann & Kirschen, D.s (2005), “A Survey of Definitions and Specifications of Reserve Services”, UK, 2005.
UCTE, "UCTE Operation Handbook", v 2.5E, the 20th of July 2004.
UCTE, Online technical document, terms_power_balance/e_default_explanation.asp".
ELIA, "Rapport Opérationnel 2004", 2004.
RTE, "Mémento de la sûreté du système électrique", 2004.
VDN, "Transmission Code: Network and System Rules of the German Transmission System Operators", August 2003.
VDN, "Leistungsbilanzen in Deutschland - Rahmen, Zielsetzung und Systematik", Janvier 2000.
Tenne T, "".
Ministerio de industria y energía, "Procedimientos de Operación", vol. BOE n° 197, 20053, 1998.
NERC, "Standard BAL-001-0 - Real Power Balancing Control Performance", 2005.
NERC, "Standard BAL-002-0 - Disturbance Control Performance", 2005.
PJM, "Manual 10: Pre-Scheduling Operations", Revision 16, 2003.
PJM, "Manual 14D: Generator Operational Requirements", Revision 04, April 2005.
CAISO, "Procedure M-402: Ancillary Service Procurement", the 1st of October 2004.
CAISO, "Spinning Reserve and Non-Spinning Reserve Settlements Guide (draft)", the 15th of March 2005.
NGET, "Fast Reserve: Market Information for Tenders for October 2005", September 2005.
NGET, "Standing reserve market report 2005/2006", July 2005.
J Zhu, G Jordan, and S Ihara, "The market for spinning reserve and its impacts on energy prices", proceedings of the IEEE Power Engineering Society Winter Meeting, 2000.
M. D. Hadley, J. B. McBride, T. W. Edgar, L. R. ONeil and J. D. Johnson, Securing Wide Area Measurement Systems, Prepared by Pacific Northwest National Labo- ratory for DOE, Washington, 2007.
E. Chen, H. S. Timorabadi and F. P. Dawson, "Real-time phasor measurement method including a GPS common time-stamp for distributed power system monitoring and control," Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2005., Saskatoon, Sask., 2005, pp. 441-444.
Zhenyu Huang et al., "Performance evaluation of phasor measurement systems," 2008 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting - Conversion and Delivery of Electrical Energy in the 21st Century, Pittsburgh, PA, 2008, pp. 1-7.
Khairudin & Hakim, L & Mitani, Y & Watanabe,“Phasor measurement technology based power system monitoring and control,”ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. 12. 3847-3852.
Y. Yan, Y. Qian, H. Sharif and D. Tipper, "A Survey on Cyber Security for Smart Grid Communications," in IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 998-1010, Fourth Quarter 2012.
ENA-ETSAP, “Tech_Brief_Power_Grid_Integration.” IRENA, 2015.
NIST, “ENERGY-Technologies to Enable a Smart Grid October,” Gaithersburg, MD 20899, 2010.
Islam, M. A. et al. “Global Renewable Energy-Based Electricity Generation and Smart Grid System for Energy Security.” The Scientific World Journal 2014 (2014): 197136. PMC. Web. 6 Oct. 2017.
M. Shahidehpour, F. Tinney and Yong Fu, "Impact of Security on Power Systems Operation," in Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 93, no. 11, pp. 2013-2025, Nov. 2005.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186